Reconstruction

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Reconstruction – Aims & Effects:

Reconstruction – Aims & Effects Grade 8 U.S. History

Lesson Standard:

Lesson Standard 8 th Grade History/Social Science Standard: 8.11 Students analyze the character and lasting consequences of Reconstruction. 1. List the original aims of Reconstruction and describe its effect on the political and social structures of different regions.

Lesson Standard:

Lesson Standard CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.2.d Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.8.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Lesson goals and objectives:

Lesson goals and objectives Goal: Students will learn about the various attempts at Reconstruction after the American Civil War, and their outcomes. Objective: Students will complete a graphic organizer listing the details of: Lincoln’s plan; the Wade-Davis B ill; Johnson’s plan; and, Radical Reconstruction.

The end of the civil war:

The end of the civil war After the Union victory Northern politicians needed to figure out how to return the Southern states to the Union and what rights to allow the newly freed African Americans. Timeline: December 1863 – Lincoln announces his “Ten Percent Plan” to reunite the Union 1864 – Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee set up new governments under Lincoln’s plan July 1864 – Congress passes the Wade-Davis bill (Radical’s Plan), Lincoln vetoed it 1864 – Lincoln wins reelection March 1865 – Thirteenth Amendment (abolishing slavery) passes April 1865 – Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox, Virginia

Journal:

Journal War is ended and slavery is abolished! Now what? Write a journal entry of at least 5 – 8 sentences describing what this means to the four million former slaves. What does the future hold for them? 5 Minutes

Big Idea:

Big Idea Differences over how Reconstruction after the Civil War should be carried out divided the government .

Big Idea:

Big Idea After the Civil War, the South had to rebuild not only its farms and roads, but its social and political structures as well .

Lincoln’s ten Percent Plan - 1863:

Lincoln’s ten Percent Plan - 1863 Before the Civil War ended, Lincoln offered the first plan to bring Southern states back into the Union. When 10% of a state’s voters took an oath of loyalty to the Union, the state could form a new government and adopt a new constitution that banned slavery. Offered amnesty to all white Southerners, except Confederate leaders, who gave loyalty to the Union. a mnesty : immunity from prosecution

Lincoln’s ten percent plan - 1863:

Lincoln’s ten percent plan - 1863 Results: In 1864 Louisiana, Arkansas, and Tennessee set up new governments under this plan. Some Republicans thought it was too mild, favoring a more radical approach. radical: extreme

The Wade Davis Bill - 1864:

The Wade Davis Bill - 1864 Congress was controlled by Radical Republicans. One leader, Thaddeus Stevens, declared that the foundations of the South “must be broken up and relaid , or all our blood and treasure have been spent in vain.” Think – Pair – Share Write what you think this statement means, then discuss with a partner. Be prepared to share your answers with the class. 3 Minutes

The Wade-Davis Bill - 1864:

The Wade-Davis Bill - 1864 Congress voted to deny seats to representatives from states under Lincoln’s new plan, then passed their own Reconstruction plan. Most white males in a state had to swear loyalty to the Union. Only white males who swore they had not fought the Union could vote for a delegate in a constitutional convention. Former Confederates were banned from public office. Any new state constitution had to end slavery.

The wade-davis bill - 1864:

The wade- davis bill - 1864 The Results: Lincoln vetoes the bill, but realizes that he must compromise with the Radical Republicans.

The end of war - 1865:

The end of war - 1865 March 1865 – The Thirteenth Amendment passes, abolishing slavery. April 9, 1865 – General Lee and the Confederates surrender to General Grant at Appomattox, Virginia. April 14, 1865 – President Lincoln is assassinated. Vice President Andrew Johnson becomes president.

Johnson’s “Restoration” Plan - 1865:

Johnson’s “Restoration” Plan - 1865 Before being elected Vice President, Andrew Johnson was a Senator from Tennessee who did not support cessation or the Confederates, yet he did not support full rights for former slaves. He had his own ideas for Reconstruction.

Johnson’s “Restoration” Plan - 1865:

Johnson’s “Restoration” Plan - 1865 “Treason must be made odious and t raitors punished.” – Andrew Johnson, 1862 Most Southerners would be granted amnesty once they swore loyalty to the Union. High-ranking Confederates could only be pardoned by the President. Only loyal, pardoned whites could vote for delegates to the state constitutional conventions.

Johnson’s “Restoration” Plan - 1865:

Johnson’s “Restoration” Plan - 1865 Results: By the end 1865 all states except Texas had rejoined the Union under Johnson’s plan. Drawing Conclusions: Do you think that President Johnson’s early ties to the South affected his Reconstruction plan? Explain your answer. 2 Minutes

Reconstruction Act of 1867:

Reconstruction Act of 1867 With the support of African American voters, Republicans now have a two-thirds majority in Congress after the 1866 elections. Congress could now override any Presidential veto. Congress takes over Reconstruction plans and Radical Reconstruction begins Northerners began to see that African Americans in the South were still being mistreated.

Reconstruction Act of 1867:

Reconstruction Act of 1867 Called for the creation of new governments in the 10 states that had not yet ratified the Fourteenth Amendment. The states were under military command until the new governments were formed. Guaranteed African American males the right to vote in state elections. Prevented former Confederate leaders from holding political office.

Reconstruction Act of 1867:

Reconstruction Act of 1867 To rejoin the Union, states had to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment and have Congress approve their new state constitutions. A Second Reconstruction Act required the military commanders to register voters and prepare for state constitutional conventions.

Reconstruction Act of 1867:

Reconstruction Act of 1867 Results: In state elections Republicans gained control of the state governments. Seven states met the readmission conditions by 1868, and by 1870 all Southern states were now restored to the Union. Together again – five years after the end of the Civil War.

United states, 1870:

United states, 1870

Johnson’s impeachment trial:

Johnson’s impeachment trial Johnson is now clearly aligned with Southern Democrats and working against the Republican Congress. Congress passes several laws to limit Presidential power. In August 1867 Johnson suspended his Secretary of War, violating the new Tenure of Office Act.

Johnson’s impeachment trial:

Johnson’s impeachment trial The House of Representatives voted to impeach Johnson for misconduct. Johnson’s impeachment trial begins in March 1868. The Senators, acting as jury, voted 35 -19 to convict Johnson. They were one vote short of the two-thirds majority required. Johnson remained in office until the end of his term. i mpeach : to formally charge with wrongdoing

Small Group Discussion:

Small Group Discussion Johnson and his defenders claimed that he was exercising his right to challenge laws he considered unconstitutional. The impeachment was politically motivated, thus contrary to the spirit of the constitution. Congress was trying to remove him from office without accusing him of a crime, only a difference of opinion. Johnson’s accusers argued that Congress should retain the power to make laws. Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts declared that Johnson had turned “the veto power conferred by the Constitution as a remedy for ill-considered legislation . . . into a weapon of offense against Congress.” Take a vote! 7 Minutes

Grant elected president - 1868:

Grant elected president - 1868 The Republican party abandoned Johnson and supported General Ulysses S. Grant, the Civil War hero, as their presidential candidate. He won over Democrat candidate Horatio Seymour, former Governor of New York. Voters supported the Republican approach to Reconstruction.

The amnesty act:

The amnesty act Liberal Republicans call for expanded amnesty for white Southerners. In May 1872, Congress passed the Amnesty Act, which pardoned most former Confederates. Nearly all white Southerners could vote and hold office again. This changed the political balance in the South by restoring full rights to Democrats.

1874 congressional elections:

1874 congressional elections The Democrat party gained power with the Amnesty Act. At the same time, the Republican party was weakened with several political scandals, and an economic depression. In the 1874 election Democrats gained seats in the Senate and now had a majority in the House of Representatives.

presidential election of 1876:

presidential election of 1876 The election between Republican Rutherford B. Hayes and Democrat Samuel Tilden was disputed. Tilden appeared to be the winner, but returns from four states were in doubt. Northern troops still occupied Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina. Tilden only needed one more electoral vote to win, but Hayes could win if all 20 disputed votes were in his favor. After several months, a special commission awarded the election to Hayes.

Presidential election of 1876:

Presidential election of 1876

Compromise of 1877:

Compromise of 1877 The deal congressional leaders made to settle the election dispute included favors to the South. Give more aid to the South Withdraw all remaining troops from the Southern states Democrats promised to maintain African American rights.

The end of reconstruction:

The end of reconstruction In his Inaugural Address, Hayes declared that what the South needed most was the restoration of “wise, honest, and peaceful local self-government.” In another speech to African Americans in Atlanta, he told them “ . . . [your] rights and interests would be safer if this great mass of intelligent white men were let alone by the general Government.”

The south after reconstruction:

The south after reconstruction The new Democrats in the South lowered taxes, reduced public spending and government services. They cut or eliminated many social services started during Reconstruction, including public education. Through the end of the 1800’s African Americans lost their rights to vote through poll taxes, literacy tests and terrorizing violence. “Jim Crow” segregation laws spread, and were validated by the 1896 Supreme Court case Plessey v. Ferguson.

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