Problem-solving with Ishikawa

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Solving complex problems with the fish bone technique by discovering the true underlying causative factors

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Problem-solving with Ishikawa To start the presentation, click on “Slide Show” on the menu toolbar above, then select “View Show”. Left click with the mouse to progress through the slides - Copyright belongs to Pierre du Plessis and cannot be re-distributed in any way.

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Index Introduction The fish bone diagram Cascading the process Conversion to a normal diagram Actions to overcome barriers Detailing action plans The normal decision making process

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The purpose of this module is to help you plan systematic action to achieve the targets set for your key result indicators (K.R.I.'s). Key result indicators are factors used to measure performance in key result areas of operations. Key result areas are the important or critical areas for achievement of job or process objectives. Key result indicators are for instance cost, profit, ratio's, man hours, time, volume, specifications etc. Whenever we plan, it is inevitable that we will have many problems to overcome to arrive at our chosen destination. Part of planning to arrive at our destination (meeting our targets) is to consider the anticipated problems along the way. These problems are the barriers to overcome. Introduction The Ishikawa diagram is named after the Japanese inventor, who invented it, but the common name is “fish bone” diagram. It is a decision-making tool, to help you look beyond the apparent problems and to arrive at the true underlying causative factors.

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The Fish Bone Diagram Barrier or problem preventing performance Cause 1 Cause 2 Cause 3 Cause 4 Cause 5 Cause 6 Cause 7 Cause 8 This tool is ideal for use in a brainstorming session by a group of people such as quality circles.

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Cascading the process Barrier or problem preventing performance Cause 1 Cause 2 Cause 3 Cause 4 Cause 5 Cause 6 Cause 7 Cause 8 Cause 1 in the diagram above, now becomes sub-barrier 1 Cause 1 Cause 2 Cause 3 Cause 4 Cause 5 Cause 6 Cause 7 Cause 8 1. Analyse and list the apparent causative factors as cause 1, 2 etc 2. Repeat the process by making each of the causes the sub-barrier: Analyse and list the apparent causes for sub-barrier 1:

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Cascading continued …………………. The cascading sequence are repeated until you are happy that you have arrived at the true underlying causative factors. In other words you cannot find more reasons for the problems

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Conversion to a normal diagram Downtime 1 Machine failures 2 Power failures 3 Late arrival of work in progress 4 Slow repairs Slow repairs Major breakdowns P r I o r I t I s e P r I o r I t I s e 1 Major breakdowns 2 Spares not available 3. Unqualified personnel 1. Shortage of backup capacity 2. Faulty planned maintenance 3. Faulty failure detection devices By prioritise we mean: identify at each stage the 20% causes which are responsible for 80% of the problem, for further breakdown of causes in the next stage. By starting with one major barrier you can end up with quite a few underlying causes.

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Actions to overcome barriers Major barriers Major causes Major Actions 1. 1. 2. 3. 2. 1. 2. 3. List the major barriers and causes to arrive at proper actions to rectify these underlying causes. These actions will then help you to overcome the barriers.

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Detailing the action plans Major Actions Time Limits Responsible Person

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The normal decision making process Defining the problem Finding the right option Making it work D efinition of the problem E xpectations of the outcome C onstraints on the options I nfo gathering S election of an option out of many I mplementation of action plan O utcome evaluation N ext problem

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