Causes of 13 May 1969 (3)

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Causes of 13 May 1969

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Racial Segregtion Housing segregation according to race and separation based on different economic sectors during the colonization of British. Malays remained as a self-sufficient farmers and fishermen, Chinese were propelled to get active in trading and business sectors, whilst the Indians remained in the estates. The Malays dominated more of the under-developed fields which have low salary income. Whereas Chinese embraced a more advanced and progressive technologies. Malay

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Indian Chinese The huge income imbalance and sharp division of wealth caused each race to be envious of one another. The Malays were envious to the luxuries and success of the Chinese. The Chinese and Indians dissatisfied by the privileges accorded to the Malays special rights, citizenship rights, language, culture and education .

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The run-up to the election was also marred by two deaths: that of an UMNO election agent, who was killed by a group of armed Chinese youths in Penang and that of a member of the Labour Party of Malaya (LPM), who was killed in Kepong, Selangor. There was a contrast in the handling of these two deaths. The UMNO worker was buried without publicity, but the LPM casualty was honoured at a parade on 9 May when some 3000 LPM members marched from Kuala Lumpur to Kepong, violating regulations and trying to provoke incidents with the police.

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Election Result General elections on 10 May 1969, resulted in the return to power, with a reduced majority, of the ruling Alliance Party (UMNO, MCA and the MIC). The Parti Gerakan Malaysia(Gerakan) and the Democratic Action Party(DAP), made major gains in the election.

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Groups of Malays from outside Kuala Lumpur gathered at Selangor Menteri Besar Datuk Harun Idris’ house in Kampung Baru. They urged Harun to lead a victory demonstration to show they had not lost power. Soon, street clashes broke out between them and Chinese and Indian youths. Parang, sticks and iron pipes were used.

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He must act upon the council of the Prime Minister with the assistance of a movement called the National Movement Council (MAGERAN). Tun Abdul Razak was given the power of executive of the Federation when the second Ordinance of Emergency was declared. Parliamentary Council Conference, the State Legislative Assembly conference, and the elections for Sabah & Sarawak was postponed. Effective on the same day as the riot. The Prime Minister and members of Board of Ministers advised the YDPA to declare Emergency.

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The National Operations Council (NOC), or better known as Majlis Gerakan Negara (MAGERAN) was formed on 17 May 1969. Aim is to take over the Parliamentary duties. Held confidential meetings from time to time for safety. Involved in planning and reorganizing the administration system to avoid the 13th May incident to happen again. Functioned as the restorer of peace and laws of the country, and was successful. The parliamentary government was returned on 23 February 1971.

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- Founded in 1969, and led by the Tan Sri Mohd Ghazali Shafie - Aim to national ideology and aimed at national unity. MMN was gazette on 18 th July 1969 and serves to : 1. restore the trust and confidence amongst the races 2. help and arrange the voluntary work 3. analyst and overcome misunderstanding 4. assist government if requested to do so. - On 1 st January 1972, MMN and JPN become the Ministry of National Unity.

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The Creation of Rukun Negara -created at 13 August 1970 after the racial riot event -proclaimed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong IV. -also known as The Pillars of Principle. -formulated during the leadership of MAGERAN. -the National Advisory Council (MPN) was responsible. Achieving a greater unity of all the people. Maintaining a democratic way of life. Creating a just society in which the wealth of the nation shall be equitably shared. Ensuring a liberal approach to her rich and diverse cultural tradition. Building a progressive community which shall be oriented to modern science and technology

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One’s personality and one’s race and country may be destroyed in the absence of religion. Religions like Islam, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Hinduism, Christianity and others are embrace by the races. The principles of religions serve as a guide for one’s action, making one aware of sins and rewards. Islam is the official religion of Malaysia but other religions are free to be practiced. Because of it every individual can hold on to their beliefs and practice their religious teaching.

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To generate responsible citizens. Prioritizes the good of the community and the country without prejudice and racial sentiments. In return, it will produce citizens with attribute such as respecting public property and the symbols of national sovereignty, adhering to the law, loyal, willing and bold enough to defend the country from any threats by outside power, willing to contribute time and energy to improve the good name of the country and altruistic.

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Emphasizes people to accept obey and defend the Constitution. Provides protection and rights for the community.

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Ensure basic rights are secured. If defended, community will live in peace and harmony. Centralized on few resources and types that have been discussed earlier, must be obeyed to ensure the sovereignty can be maintained. Every citizen is equal in status from the eye of the law and governed by the law.

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Make sure Malaysians are polite and courteous. In the end it will create a harmonious multiracial community. Assuring people to have noble morality and avoid sensitive issues and matters agreed by the majority. Ensure good relationships among different ethnic group can be sustained.

Expansion of the education System – 1st phase ( 1961- 1970 ) :

Expansion of the education System – 1 st phase ( 1961- 1970 ) Widen chance of education to all citizens Number of secondary students based on race Malay- medium(13,000) Chinese –medium school (34,000) English- medium (152,000) Number of primary scholars risen from 211,000 to 938,000

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The Expansion of the Education System – 2 nd phases (1970- ) In 1963, Sekolah Alam Shah, Kuala Lumour was erected and became the first Malay- medium secondary school. In 1964, entry examination had taken into secondary school with the purpose of giving opportunities to more students further their education . Students were giving pre-vocational education like Industrial Arts, Agriculture Arts, Home science and etc. Education slowly become more inclined to review and revise the curriculum, to fulfill the need of the country growth in term of industry, economy , and the progress of science and technology. In 1969, Datuk Abdul Rahman Ya`kub ( Minister of Education) announced the Ministry of Education proposal to change English-medium school to malay -medium school .

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Aminuddin Baki was a first local appointed as the Head of Education supervisor. He was taken effort to improve the quality of education and Malay student involvement . He also need to build up three Malay- medium fully boarded secondary school Under Malaysia development Plan, the government had various educational facilities made available to prevent ignorance amongst students. Grant were provided to assist financially- deserving student. Special Programme Scheme, potential student from rural area were placed into selected secondary school. Sekolah Menengah King Edward VII Sekolah Menengah Sultan Abdul Hamid

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In 1974, Cabinet Committee was established to examine the National Education Policy. KBSM is the continuation of KBSR that is based on3M (reading, writing and calculating) In 1975, government came up with the Textbook Loan Scheme (SPBT) to help student in poverty and to solve the academic disabilities problem. Both KBSR & KBSM based on the 3 M – Membaca (reading), Menulis ( writing ) and Mingira ( arithmetic) With the report in mind, the Ministry of Education launched: -primary School `s New Curriculum(KBSR) , in 1983, -secondary School Integrated Curriculum (KBSM) in 1989

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New Economy Policy(DEB/ DEP) Malaysia`s New Economy policy first launched in 1970 as the principal policy response to the post-election race riots of May 1969, which also resulted in a significant regime change. Objective: to reduce and abolish poverty, and also to rearrange the community , and put a stop to the introduction of race Due to the problem mainly concerned the socio-economic gap between: Bumiputra and non Bumiputra Rural and urban area East coast and west coast state State in Peninsula and Sabah and Sarawak DEB was also the one of the first decision planed by Malaysian Government (National Operation Council) , through the long term planning Framework between 1971 and 1990.

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