Relevance of Diplomacy in Crisis Communication Management in Public an


Presentation Description

Organisation and nations will go through crisis. Crisis management is a critical organizational function. Effective crisis management handles the threats sequentially. The primary concern in a crisis has to be public safety. Leaders during crisis must align three strategic elements: the Goals, the People and the Resources. Crises can affect a company’s tangible and intangible assets. So, it is important that crisis management is among the most important management functions. This paper seeks to discuss the Crisis communication and its management, and the role and relevance of diplomacy in helping the mitigation of crisis when it happens, and how it can assist in reducing future crisis to a manageable level.


Presentation Transcript

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The Relevance of Diplomacy in Crisis Communication Management in Public and Corporate Organisations Oyewole O. Sarumi PhD FCIPDM FCIPMN

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Oyewole O. Sarumi B.Pharm MSc MBA PhD ACC FIIM FCIPDM FNIM MTID • Former MD Boots Company Nigeria PLC • Chartered Management Consultant • ICF Certified Coach Business Analyst Professional • PACE Certified Coach – Entrepreneurs and Corporate • UN and World Bank certified consultant • Deputy Provost Adjunct Professor GIC-Lagos Tutorial Study Centre for The University of America Curacao US Campus Online. • Professor Business Transformation Organisational Development ICLED Business School Lekki Lagos • Visiting Professor and Consultant to some Nigerian Universities Business School Netherland Ikeja etc. • Director Training Litesol Consultancy Ltd Lagos • Registrar CIPDM Nigeria

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Opening Thought: 04/06/2021 Email: “Any deep crisis is an opportunity to make your life extraordinary in some way.”— Martha Beck Author “In crisis management be quick with the facts and slow with the blame.” — Leonard Saffir Public relations executive

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Learning Objectives • At the end of this session participants will be able to: • define diplomacy Crisis and Crisis Communication • describe Crisis Communication Management CCM • state some differences between Public and Corporate Organisations • discuss crisis communication management techniques 04/06/2021 Email:

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Learning Objectives • state the steps to effective Crisis Communication • identify the mistakes leaders can made during crisis communication and • discuss the roles and relevance of diplomacy in crisis communication management. 04/06/2021 Email:

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Introduction…1 • Organisation and nations will go through crisis. • Crisis management is a critical organizational function • Effective crisis management handles the threats sequentially. • The primary concern in a crisis has to be public safety. • Leaders during crisis must align three strategic elements: the Goals the People and the Resources.

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Introduction…2 • The days of playing ostrich are over as hoping the problem goes away won’t happen. • Stakeholders won’t be that neither sympathetic understanding nor forgiving when the chips are down and won’t be watching their investment going bubble • Crises can affect a company’s tangible and intangible assets. • So it is important that crisis management is among the most important management functions.

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Introduction…3 • Crisis preparation may be a critical determinant of survival for any organization. • Strategic crisis preparation is becoming increasingly important as companies try to cope effectively with potential crises Alexander Rozanov 2020.

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Introduction…3 • This paper seeks to discuss the Crisis communication and its management and the role and relevance of diplomacy in helping the mitigation of crisis when it happens and how it can assist in reducing future crisis to a manageable level.

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The Key Terms • They are: • Diplomacy • Crisis • Crisis Management • Crisis Communication CC and • Crisis Communication Management CCM. 04/06/2021 Email:

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Diplomacy Dipl om acy… the established method of influencing the decisions and behaviour of foreign governments and peoples through dialogue negotiation and other measures short of war or violence. Diplomacy is the principal substitute for the use of force or underhanded means in statecraft it is how comprehensive national power is applied to the peaceful adjustment of differences between states.

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Diplomacy - the art and practice of conducting negotiations and maintaining relations between parties - skill in handling affairs without arousing animousity – USA Dept of State - the art of dealing with people in a sensitive and tactful way.

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Diplomacy Diplomacy is defined as “the art and practice of conducting negotiations between nations” in order to implement those polices and pursue those interests. Diplomacy is the instrument of communication not the message communicated.- Edward Marks

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Diplomacy George Kennan said: “This is the classic function of diplomacy: to effect the communications between one’s own government and other governments or individuals abroad and to do this with maximum accuracy imagination tact and good sense.”

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Diplomacy • The British diplomat Ernest Sato described diplomacy as an application of intellect and tact to conduct foreign affairs. • In his view Vladimir Petrovsk said ‘a modern diplomat is discreet practical careful and with a sense of responsibility’.

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Diplomatic functions in Organizations: • Representation • Communication • Negotiation • Advocacy and mediation • Observation of situations • Reporting and feedback systems • Public relations and • International relations.

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Crisis and some terms • Let’s first define the three terms that comes up if Crisis is to be properly defined. • Issue – a topic of discussion a matter in dispute or a sensitive subject within an organization industry or society • Accident – an unexpected and undesirable event usually one resulting in damage or injury • Emergency – a serious situation or unexpected occurrence that demands immediate action and communication. Email: 04/06/2021

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What is a Crisis •A Crisis is…. •A critical or decisive point at which an organization’s response to an issue accident or emergency threatens the reputation and/or future standing of the organization. •A situation that is threatening or could threaten to harm people or property seriously interrupt business damage reputation and/or negatively impact share value. Email: 04/06/2021

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What is a Crisis •A major unpredictable event or it can be an activity that has potentially negative result. •As a significant threat to operations that can have negative consequences if not handled properly. •Refers to sequence of unwanted events at the workplace which lead to disturbances and major unrest amongst the individuals. Email: 04/06/2021

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What is a Crisis •A Crisis is…. •A sudden and unexpected event leading to major unrest amongst the individuals at the workplace is called as organization crisis. •As any emergency situation which disturbs the employees as well as leads to instability in the organization. Email: 04/06/2021

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What is a Crisis •Crisis affects an individual group organization or society on the whole. •Crisis generally arises on a short notice and triggers a feeling of threat and fear in the employees. •Crisis leads to uncertainty and causes major harm to the organization and its employees. •Note: Goal: Prevent issues accidents and emergencies from becoming crises. Email: 04/06/2021

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Characteristics of Crisis ❑ Crisis is a sequence of sudden disturbing events harming the organization. ❑ Crisis generally arises on a short notice. ❑ Crisis triggers a feeling of fear and threat amongst the individuals. Email: 04/06/2021

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Elements of a Crisis 6/4/2021 Email: b the element of surprise ca short decision time da need for change Three elements are common to most definitions of crisis: a a threat to the organization

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Common features of a crisis: ➢ The situation materialises unexpectedly ➢ Decisions are required urgently ➢ Time is short ➢ Specific threats are identified ➢ Urgent demands for information are received ➢ There is sense of loss of control ➢ Pressures build over time ➢ Routine business become increasingly difficult ➢ Demands are made to identify someone to blame ➢ Outsiders take an unaccustomed interest ➢ Reputation suffers ➢ Communications are increasingly difficult to manage 04/06/2021 Email:

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What is Crisis Management • Crisis Management is… • A process designed to prevent or lessen the damage a crisis can inflict on an organization and its stakeholders. • "The actions that are taken to deal with an emergency or difficult situation in an organized way" - Cambridge Dictionary Email: 04/06/2021

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What is Crisis Management • Crisis Management is… • The art of dealing with sudden and unexpected events which disturbs the employees organization as well as external clients. • The process of handling unexpected and sudden changes in organization culture. Email: 04/06/2021

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Crisis Management - 3 response to a crisis in a timely fashion is a challenge for public and private organisations. must be open and consistent communication throughout the hierarchy to contribute to a successful crisis communication process. 04/06/2021 Email:

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Crisis Management is all about making decisions • In crisis management the threat is the potential damage a crisis can inflict on an organization its stakeholders and reputation. • A crisis can create three related threats: • 1 public safety • 2 financial loss and • 3 reputation loss. Email: 04/06/2021

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Crisis Management is all about making decisions • Some crises such as industrial accidents and product harm can result in injuries and even loss of lives. • Crises can create financial loss by disrupting operations such as: • reducing purchase intentions • closing a factory while an investigation into the accident takes place • creating a loss of market share or • spawning lawsuits related to the crisis. Email: 04/06/2021

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Purpose of crisis management: ➢ Prevention ➢ Survival ➢ Successful outcomes 04/06/2021 Email:

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Stages of Crisis Management

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The Basic Stages of Crisis •The basic stages of crisis are as follows: •Pre-crisis - The focus at this point is on prevention and preparation in other words reducing the known risks that can lead to crisis. •Response. This stage deals with the actual response to a real live crisis.

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The Basic Stages of Crisis • Post-crisis. All great crises must come to an end. During this phase leaders: ➢take the opportunity to look back and reflect ➢create a post-mortem to see what went wrong which helps them think of ways to better prepare for the next crisis. ➢It’s also when companies begin fulfilling the commitments they made while the crisis was still raging.

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What is Crisis Communication • Crisis Communication refers to a special wing which deals with the reputation of the individuals as well as the organization. • Crisis communication is an initiative which aims at protecting the reputation of the organization and maintaining its public image. • Various factors such as criminal attacks government investigations media enquiry can tarnish the image of an organization. • Crisis Communication specialists fight against several challenges which tend to harm the reputation and image of the organization. Email: 04/06/2021

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Need for Crisis Communication • Crisis can have a negative effect on brand image. • Save an organization’s reputation against various threats and unwanted challenges. • The main purpose of Crisis Communication team is to • Protect the brand identity • Maintain the organization’s firm standing within the industry. • Crisis Communication specialists strive hard to overcome tough situations and help the organization come out of difficult situations in the best possible and quickest way. Email: 04/06/2021

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Communication Mechanisms during a Crisis: ➢ Inside Alert ➢ News Releases ➢ Media Briefings and News Conferences ➢ World Wide Web ➢ Voice Mail ➢ Flyers ➢ Housing Residential Staff ➢ Cable Information Channel ➢ Phone Bank ➢ Hotline 04/06/2021 Email:

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General Types of Crises in Organisations 46 • What does a “crisis” look like to our organizations – Product issue – Service issue – Financial issue – HR issue • Discrimination • Harassment – Employee misconduct – Executive misconduct – Board misconduct – Facilities issue – Natural disaster – Mistake – Accident – Injury or death – Protest – Coordinated external campaign e.g. online

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Types of Crises ➢ Financial ➢ Natural disasters ➢ Malevolence ➢ Technical breakdowns ➢ Technological ➢ Human breakdowns ➢ Challenges ➢ Mega-damage ➢ Organizational misdeeds ➢ Workplace violence ➢ Crisis of deception ➢ Rumors 04/06/2021 Email:

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Financial Crisis ▪ These are the crisis that occur in an organization due to its prevailing financial conditions. ▪ Losses increase in costs non-availability of funds bankruptcy unable to pay back loans etc.

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Examples of Financial Crisis ▪ KingfisherAirlines recently faced a financial crisis. ▪Deutsche Bank faced a financial crisis in USA in 2009.

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Technological Crisis ▪ Technological crisis are caused by human application of science and technology. This occurs when technology becomes complex and the system breaks down. ▪ Software failures Industrial accidents etc.

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Examples of Technological Crisis ▪ Exxon V aldez oil spill in Alaska on March 241989. ▪Union Carbide India Ltd gas leak in Bhopal on December 2 1984.

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Crisis of Malevolence ▪ When opponents or miscreant individuals use extreme tactics for the purpose of expressing anger or seeking gain from a company or economic system perhaps with the aim of destroying it. ▪ Product tampering kidnapping malicious rumors terrorism etc.

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Example of Malevolence Crisis ▪ The Tylenol Extra-Strength capsules murder case in Chicago on 29 September 1982.

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Natural Crisis ▪ Natural crisis are natural disasters considered as acts of God are such environmental phenomena. ▪ Earthquakes volcanic eruptions tornadoes and hurricanes floods landslides tsunamis storms and droughts etc.

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Examples of Natural Crisis ▪ The Power Project of Jaiprakash Associates at Nathpa in Himachal Pradesh was devastated by floods. ▪The Indian Ocean earthquake Tsunami in 2004.

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Crisis of Deception ▪ Crisis of deception occur when management conceals or misrepresents information about itself and its products in its dealing with consumers and others.

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Example of Crisis of Deception ▪ Dow C o r n i n g ’ s silicone- gel controversy in Michigan USA. ▪The Satyam scam which came into light in 2009

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Workplace Violence and Rumours ▪ Crisis occur when an employees or former employees commits an act of violence against other employees on organizational grounds. ▪ Rumors are when false information about an organization or its products creates crises hurting it’s reputation.

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Example of Workplace Violence and Rumors ▪ A workplace violence had occurred between the laborers and higher authority in Vardhman Group of Companies. ▪Procter Gamble’s Logo controversy in 1985.

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Example of Unsuccessful Crisis Management ▪ Union Carbide India Ltd gas leak tragedy in Bhopal on December 2 1984.

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▪ It occurred on the night of December 2–3 1984 at the Union Carbide India Ltd pesticide plant in Bhopal Madhya Pradesh. ▪ A leak of methyl isocyanate gas and other chemicals from the plant resulted in the exposure of hundreds of thousands of people. ▪ Estimates vary on the death toll. The official immediate death toll was 2259 and the government of Madhya Pradesh.

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Example of Successful Crisis Management ▪ The Pepsi Corporation faced a crisis in 1993 which was successfully managed by the company.

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▪ In 1993 claims of syringes being found in cans of diet Pepsi were made. ▪ Company urged stores not to remove the product from shelves while it had the cans and the situation investigated. ▪ Pepsi released videos and made public showing the production process to demonstrate that such tampering was impossible within their factories. ▪ Crisis was managed through effective communication.

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Three Categories of Crisis • Victim crises: very weak crisis responsibility. • Accident crises: minimal crisis responsibility. • Intentional crises: strong crisis responsibility. 04/06/2021 Email:

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Victim Crises • Natural disasters: acts of nature such as tornadoes or earthquakes. • Rumors: false and damaging information being circulated about your organization. • Workplace violence: attack by former or current employee on current employees on-site. • Product tampering/malevolence: external agent causes damage to the organization. 04/06/2021 Email:

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Accidental • Challenges: stakeholders claim that the organization is operating in an inappropriate manner. • Technical error accidents: equipment or technology failure that causes an industrial accident. • Technical error product harm: equipment or technology failure that causes a product to be defective or potentially harmful. 04/06/2021 Email:

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Preventable Crises ➢Human-error accidents: industrial accident caused by human error. ➢Human-error product harm: product is defective or potentially harmful because of human error. ➢Organizational misdeed: management actions that put stakeholders at risk and/or violate the law. 04/06/2021 Email:

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Crisis Management Types of crises of organizational misdeeds: - crises of skewed management values - crises of deception - crises of management misconduct. 04/06/2021 Email:

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Contingency Planning • Plan in advance • Rehearse via simulation • Stipulate who the spokesperson is • Speed and efficiency in response to crisis • Offer accurate information or it will backfire • Plan offers info and guidance to help decision makers deal with long-term effects of decisions 04/06/2021 Email:

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Role of apologies in crisis management • Controversial - for fear of legal outcomes • Evidence says that a compensation and sympathy are effective • True contrition includes sympathy for victims and offers of compensation to offset losses or suffering 04/06/2021 Email:

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Three criteria of success: ➢Has organisational capacity been restored ➢Have losses been minimised ➢Have lessons been learned 04/06/2021 Email:

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How Do We Communicate • To resolve this question: How Do We Communicate we have to understand: • Myths that must be dealt with and • The role of social media today. Email: 04/06/2021

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Myths ➢Myth: ➢We dont have enough time and resources to have a risk communication program. ➢Action: ➢Train all your staff to communicate more effectively. ➢Plan projects to include time to involve the public. Chessetal.1988 04/06/2021 Email:

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➢Myth: ➢Telling the public about a risk is more likely to unduly alarm people than keeping quiet. ➢Action: ➢Decrease potential for alarm by giving people a chance to express their concerns. Myth Chessetal.1988 04/06/2021 Email:

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Myths Chesset al.1988 ➢Myth: ➢Communication is less important than education. ➢If people knew the true risks they would refuse to accept them. ➢Action: ➢Pay as much attention to your process for dealing with people as you do to explaining the data. 04/06/2021 Email:

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Myths Chesset al.1988 ➢Myth: ➢We shouldnt go to the public until we have solutions to environmental health problems. ➢Action: ➢Release and discuss information about risk management options and involve communities in strategies in which they have a stake. 04/06/2021 Email:

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Myths Chesset al.1988 ➢Myth: ➢These issues are too difficult for the public to understand. ➢Action: ➢Separate public disagreement with your policies from misunderstanding of the highly technical issues. 04/06/2021 Email:

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Myths Chesset al.1988 ➢Myth: ➢Technical decisions should be left in the hands of technical people. ➢Action: ➢Provide the public with information. ➢Listen to community concerns. ➢Involve staff with diverse backgrounds in developing policy. 04/06/2021 Email:

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Myths Chesset al.1988 ➢Myth: ➢Risk communication is not my job. ➢Action: ➢As a public servant you have a responsibility to the public. ➢Learn to integrate communication into your job and help others do the same. 04/06/2021 Email:

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Myths Chesset al.1988 ➢Myth: ➢If we give them an inch theyll take a mile. ➢Action: ➢If you listen to people when they are asking for inches they are less likely to demand miles. ➢Avoid the battleground. ➢Involve people early and often. 04/06/2021 Email:

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Myths Chesset al.1988 ➢Myth: ➢If we listen to the public we will devote scarce resources to issues that are not a great threat to public health. ➢Action: ➢Listen early to avoid controversy and the potential for disproportionate attention to lesser issues. 04/06/2021 Email:

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Myths Chesset al.1988 ➢Myth: ➢Activist groups are responsible for stirring up unwarranted concerns. ➢Action: ➢Activists help to focus public anger. ➢Many environmental groups are reasonable and responsible. ➢Work with groups rather than against them. 04/06/2021 Email:

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Develop a Plan ➢Anticipate potential questions ➢Prepare accurate understandable and consistent messages ➢PRACTICE PRACTICE PRACTICE 04/06/2021 Email:

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The Role of Social Media • The biggest change for crisis management is the revolution of social media. • During a crisis it’s a threat to organisations as it allows the public to spread information much faster and to a wider audience. • The public can voice their opinions propagate rumours and experiences in a highly visible manner. • All stories are now global so theres no such thing as a local crisis if youre an international brand. Email: 04/06/2021 Thompson 2018

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The Role of Social Media • Because of internet and social media a crisis in one market will become news at some point in others. Hence: • Be prepared to address the crisis in all markets. Crises cover all borders. • A single approach to social media won’t work. Media customs and cultures vary in different markets. • What works in one may intensify the problem in another. Email: 04/06/2021 Thompson 2018

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6/4/2021 THE STEPS TO EFFECTIVE CRISIS COMMUNICATION The Steps Organisational Leadership Could Take To Set Up Crisis Communication Effectively

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PRE-CRISIS 1. Anticipate Crises • Leaders must be proactive and preparing for crises. • Brainstorm with your Crisis Communications Team on all the potential crises that could occur at your organization. • Prevention involves seeking to reduce known risks that could lead to a crisis Email: 04/06/2021

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Anticipate Crises…2 Preparation involves: 1. Understanding your key stakeholders 2. Creating a crisis management plan and updating it at least annually 3. Selecting and training a crisis management team 4. Conducting exercises to test the crisis management plan and team at least annually 5. Drafting crises management messages and templates for crises statements Email: 04/06/2021

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PRE-CRISIS 2. Identify Your Crisis Communications Team • A small team of senior executives should be identified to serve as your organization’s Crisis Communications Team. • The Crisis Communication team will come up with your organisation Crisis Communication Plan. • The team may be headed by the CEO or a Senior Management Staff who reports directly to the CEO/MD. Email: 04/06/2021

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Choosing a Crisis Management Team Leader The Crisis Management Team Leader must have the following key personality traits Authoritativeness Decisiveness Ability to communicate Diplomacy © All rights reserved.

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The Officer cadre The Officer cadre needs the following key traits Communication skills Discipline Commitment Team player Decision makers Be responsive Be Calming Able to delegate © All rights reserved.

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Crisis Management Plan ▪ Gather facts. ▪ Be prepared. ▪ Communicate quickly and accurately conduct brainstorming. ▪ Develop policies to minimize crisis. ▪ Assemble and organize resources. ▪ Create a Crisis Management Team.

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Crisis management plan • A crisis management plan CMP is a reference tool not a blueprint. • A CMP provides lists of key contact information reminders of what typically should be done in a crisis and forms to be used to document the crisis response. • A CMP is not a step-by-step guide for managing a crisis. • A CMP saves time during a crisis by: • Pre-assigning some tasks • Pre-collecting some information • Serving as a reference source Email: 04/06/2021

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Crisis Management Team The common members of the crisis team are: • Public relations • Legal • Security • Operations • Finance • Human resources • Other SMEs Email: 04/06/2021

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Structure of a typical crisis management team Crisis management team leader Secretary CEO Officers Operations Legal Sailors Media Political Customer/s uppliers Internal communi- cations Press room team Political liaison teams Call center/sales management team Human resource team © All rights reserved.

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Structure of a typical crisis management team The best place for any CEO to be when disaster hits is away from the office in public and as the epicentre – be that outside the headquarters or at the scene of the crisis. The role of the CEO Again using the navy analogy the most high-ranking admiral is subservient to the ship’s captain whilst he is on board that captain’s ship. Crisis Management Team Leader A Secretary should be present in the crisis room and have full knowledge of the company and its procedures. The Secretary Beneath the leader – in ranking order will be the officer cadre those who are trusted to advise on the decisions that need to be made. The Officer Cadre The role of the officer with responsibility for operations is to ensure business continuity and that all business operations are adapted in the light of the crisis. Operations © All rights reserved.

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Structure of a typical crisis management team The officer incharge of the media must liaise with reporters organize press releases and news conferences and ensure that everyone is fully updated at all times. The Media This role will mainly entail liaison with the pressure groups and ensure dialogue with key politicians and stakeholders. Public affairs Employees are the ambassadors of the company and the officer with responsibility for employees must ensure that employees are kept updated and informed. Internal communications Maintaining the reputation of the company is a key priority during a crisis. Ensuring solid and consistent customer service is crucial. Customers and suppliers The role of the lawyer in a crisis is to ensure that the company acts operates and makes statements that are legally correct. Legal © All rights reserved.

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Creating a strong crisis team It is true that teamwork is vital in meeting the challenges faced during a crisis. As any chef knows getting the right ingredients is only the first receipe. The next step is to ensure that he has the right mix – otherwise it is quite easy to end with a finished product which is too spicy or too bland. The key objective is to ensure that the team is strong enough to weat-her the storms ahead. Many companies have examples of teams which are disorganised and where personalities clash. © All rights reserved.

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PRE-CRISIS 3. Identify and Train Spokespersons • Only authorized spokespersons speak for organisation during crisis. • Each crisis communications team should have people who have been pre-screened and trained to be the lead and/or backup spokespersons for different channels of communications. • All organizational spokespersons during a crisis situation must have: • The right skills • The right position • The right training Email: 04/06/2021

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PRE-CRISIS 4. Establish Notification and Monitoring Systems a. Notification Systems • Means to reach our internal and external stakeholders using multiple modalities is key • Essential pre-crisis to establish notification systems that will allow you to rapidly reach your stakeholders using multiple modalities. Email: 04/06/2021

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Some Popular crisis communication channels include: • Social media particularly Facebook and Twitter • Company website either as a separate domain or part of the main company site • Intranet useful for keeping the employees up to date with information • Mass notification systems mass emails texts etc. • Conference calls shareholders might dial-in to a call to be updated • Press releases and media interaction gives the organisation an opportunity to tell their side of the story Email: 04/06/2021

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b. Monitoring Systems • Intelligence gathering is an essential component of both crisis prevention and crisis response. • Knowing what’s being said about you on: • social media in traditional media • by your employees • customers and • other stakeholders … • …often allows you to catch a negative “trend” that if unchecked turns into a crisis. Email: 04/06/2021

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• Monitoring feedback from all stakeholders during a crisis situation allows you to accurately adapt your strategy and tactics. • Both require monitoring systems be established in advance. • Use Google Alerts are the no-cost favourite or free social media tracking apps such as Hootsuite. • Paid monitoring services e.g. Email: 04/06/2021

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• 5. Identify and Know Your Stakeholders • Who are the internal and external stakeholders that matter to your organization • All stakeholders talk about your organisation to others not on your contact list • Ensure that they receive the messages you would like them to repeat elsewhere Email: 04/06/2021

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Potential Stakeholders to engage during çrisis • Customers and clients • Survivors impacted by the incident and their families • Employees and their families • News media • Community especially neighbours living near a damaged facility • Company management and directors • Investors and shareholders • Board members • Government organisations regulators and other authorities • Suppliers General public Email: 04/06/2021

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CRISIS RESPONSE • What is Crisis Response • It is what management does and says after the crisis occurs. • Public relations plays a critical role in the crisis response by helping to develop the messages that are sent to various people and organisations. Email: 04/06/2021

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CRISIS RESPONSE i. Initial response to the crisis - The initial crisis response should focus on three points: • Be quick • Be accurate • Be consistent ii. Provide an early response - Aim to provide a response in the first hour after the crisis occurs. Email: 04/06/2021

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CRISIS RESPONSE • iii. Accurate information is important - Accuracy is important anytime an organisation communicates with the public • iv. Be consistent across different communication platforms - Websites intranet sites and mass notification systems add to the news media coverage and help to provide a quick response. Email: 04/06/2021

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CRISIS RESPONSE • 6. Develop Holding Statements • “holding statements” messages is designed for use immediately after a crisis breaks • Can be developed in advance to be used for a wide variety of scenarios to which the organization is perceived to be vulnerable Email: 04/06/2021

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CRISIS RESPONSE • An example of holding statements by a hotel chain with properties hit by a natural disaster before the organization’s headquarters has any hard factual information might be: • “We have implemented our crisis response plan which places the highest priority on the health and safety of our guests and staff.” • “Our thoughts are with those who were in ha rm ’s way and we hope that they are well. ” • “We will be supplying additional information when it is available and posting it on our website.” Email: 04/06/2021

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POST-CRISIS • 8. Assess the Crisis Situation • Crisis Communications Team is responsible for this assessment • Only those who plan can access performance post crisis • Hastily created crisis communications strategy and team are never as efficient as those planned and rehearsed in advance. Email: 04/06/2021

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POST-CRISIS • 9. Finalize and Adapt Key Messages • The Crisis Communications Team must continue developing the crisis-specific messages required for any given situation. • CMT already knows what type of information its stakeholders are looking for. • What should those stakeholders know about this crisis Keep it simple • Have no more than three main messages that go to all stakeholders • Have some audience-specific messages for individual groups of stakeholders. • Adapt your messaging to different forms of media as well. Email: 04/06/2021

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POST-CRISIS 10. Post-Crisis Analysis • The question must be asked “What did we learn from this” • A formal analysis of what was done right what was done wrong what could be done better next time and how to improve various elements of crisis preparedness is another must-do activity for any Crisis Communications Team. Email: 04/06/2021

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Mistakes Leaders Made Crisis Communication • Mistake 1: Having No Plan • The most common mistake leaders make is to have no plan or template to follow before during or even after a crisis occurs. • Mistake 2: No Hierarchy • One of the most critical aspects of successful crisis navigation is determining and following a proper hierarchy of executive and field leadership. Email: 04/06/2021

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Mistakes Leaders Made Crisis Communication Mistake 3: Being Invisible A leader can only be in one place at one time. Yet leaders who hide or appear removed from the crisis negate their perceived and expected leadership actions Mistake 4: Not Listening A vital skill leaders must leverage during crisis is comprehensive listening. They must set aside their egos and be willing to listen to all parties involved. Email: 04/06/2021

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Mistakes Leaders Made Crisis Communication • Mistake 5: No Communication • Unclear goals misunderstood instructions poor delegation incomplete feedback systems and lack of decision-making are the core communication failures within most crisis situations. • Mistake 6: Sticking to the Past • The very nature of a crisis mandates leaders be open and willing to change fast to embrace new ways and problem- solving techniques never before imagined on the fly and to do so without projecting fear. Email: 04/06/2021

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Mistakes Leaders Made Crisis Communication • Mistake 7: Too Much Control • It is only natural for leaders to assume control over a crisis and in fact they should. The problem is when a leader refuses to give up enough control necessary to effectively negate the crisis. • Mistake 8: Failing to Act • Hesitancy is a powerful enemy of progress. Inappropriate indecision kills a response team’s enthusiasm motivation and commitment to succeed. Email: 04/06/2021

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Mistakes Leaders Made Crisis Communication • Mistake 9: Failing to Lead • A crisis demands leadership—real leadership. No one can perfectly “manage” a crisis there are simply too many variables • Mistake 10: Lack of Review • Most people just want to get through a crisis and forget about it. One of the most powerful learning devices is a post-event analysis or debrief session which is a focused well-structured and comprehensive analysis Email: 04/06/2021

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Mistakes Leaders Made Crisis Communication Other mistakes may include: • Only start work on a potential crisis situation after it’s public. • Letting your reputation speak for you. • Treat traditional or social media like the enemy. • Use other people’s forums to tell your story. • Use language your audience doesn’t understand. • Don’t listen to your stakeholders. • Assume that truth will triumph over all. • Address only issues and ignore feelings. • Be a technophobe and don’t listen to those who are savvy about tech or online communications. Email: 04/06/2021

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Relevance of Diplomacy in Crisis Communication • According to Boin et al. 2005 public leadership during times of crisis must be prepared to address four distinct stages: • sense making in which participants try to grasp the nature severity and likely consequences of the unfolding crisis • decision making whereby the who what and when concerning the reaction to the crisis have to be agreed upon • meaning making during which public expectations are weighed and managed and • termination which covers political and operational responses to the crisis. Email: 04/06/2021

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Diplomatic Skills for use in Crisis Communication ➢Open mindedness ➢Consideration ➢Compromise ➢Assertiveness ➢Rapport ➢Politeness ➢Reflection ➢A high level of common sense ➢Good judgement and practice ➢Active listening ➢Empathy / Compassion ➢Conflict resolution tact ➢Emotional intelligence The effective use of diplomacy relies on the following key skills for all leaders engaged in Crisis:

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Relevance of Diplomacy in CCM • The CMT lead must be a good diplomatic leader. • Crisis management require high sense of community while exercising authority • Tact and wisdom must be in abundance • Ability to convince and persuade is of importance in time like this • Empathetic communication ought to be the norm especially for those affected Email: 05/06/2021

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Relevance of Diplomacy in CCM • The Spokesperson must be astute in making difficult message soothing without losing its essence • CMT lead should delegate responsibilities but be on top of the situation 24/7 • Abundance of sharing caring and support is advised. Email: 05/06/2021

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Recommended uses of various communication strategies Strategy posture Suggested applications Denial • Use if the crisis is rumor • Use if the organization is faced with an accusation or challenge that has no merit to it • Do not use with diminishing rebuilding strategies Diminishment • If the crisis involves an accident use when there is no previous crisis history or unfavorable organizational reputation • Can be used in combination with rebuilding strategies • Use if the organization is subject to a victim crisis and does have a previous crisis history or unfavorable prior organization reputation Rebuilding • Use for any crisis that is preventable • Use if the crisis involves an accident and the organization does have a previous crisis history or unfavorable prior reputation • Can be used in combination with diminishment strategies Bolstering • Use to supplement the previous three strategies © All rights reserved.

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59 “A crisis is unpredictable but not unexpected” - Timothy Combs 04/06/2021 Email: Crisis Communication

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Seven Cardinal Rules of Risk Communication ➢Accept and involve the public as a partner ➢Plan carefully and evaluate your efforts ➢Listen to the P u b l i c ’ s specific concerns ➢Be honest frank and open ➢Work with other credible sources ➢Meet the needs of the media ➢Speak clearly and with compassion CovelloandAllen1988 04/06/2021 Email:

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Emergency Personnel Team ➢Spokesperson 1-2 ➢Phone team ➢Researcher and writer ➢Business continuity ➢Decision maker ➢Legal council if applicable 04/06/2021 Email:

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Notification Procedures 1. Emergency Personnel Team 2. Board of Directors 3. Employees 4. Members 5. Other Stakeholders 04/06/2021 Email:

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Communication Procedures 1. Platform 2. Priority 3. Policy 04/06/2021 Email:

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RESPONSE ➢Emergency Notification ➢Gathering Information ➢Releasing Information ➢ Stages of Crisis 04/06/2021 Email:

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Assessment of the situation ➢Evaluate issues in two dimensions ➢likelihood ➢impact ➢Evaluate risks with risk mgt. grid ➢Evaluate relational threats ➢PowerLeverage ➢Legitimacy Value driven ➢Willingness Desire for action 5/8/2015 15 4 04/06/2021 Email:

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Assessment cont’d Relationships Risks Issues •Scenarios •Rankings •ROT s History Intuitions 5/8/2015 15 5 04/06/2021 Email:

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Assessment cont’d ➢ Historical Types of Crises ➢Natural disasters ➢Malevolence kidnapping product tampering terrorism etc. ➢Technical breakdowns ➢Human breakdowns ➢ Challenges boycotts strikes lawsuits government actions ➢ Megadamage oil spills radioactivity ➢ Organ. Misdeeds ➢ Workplace violence ➢ Rumors 5/8/2015 15 6 04/06/2021

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Designing Tools Systems ➢Select Crisis Management Team ➢Select Spokespersons ➢Develop Crisis Management Plan ➢Prepare Crisis Communication System 5/8/2015 15 7 04/06/2021 Email:

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5 communication failures that kill operational success 1. Mixed messages from multiple experts 2. Information released late 3. Paternalistic attitudes 4. Not countering rumors and myths in real-time 5. Public power struggles and confusion 04/06/2021 Email:

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What the Public Will Ask First ➢Are my family and I safe ➢What have you found that may affect me ➢What can I do to protect myself and my family ➢Who caused this ➢Can you fix it 04/06/2021 Email:

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What the Media Will Ask First ➢What happened ➢Who is in charge ➢Has this been contained ➢Are victims being helped ➢What can we expect ➢What should we do ➢Why did this happen ➢Did you have forewarning 04/06/2021 Email:

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Writing for the Media During a Crisis ➢The pressure will be tremendous from all quarters. ➢It must be fast and accurate. ➢It’s like cooking a turkey when people are starving. ➢If information isn’t finalized explain the process. 04/06/2021 Email:

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Public Information Release ➢What to release ➢When to release ➢How to release ➢Where to release ➢Who to release ➢Why release 04/06/2021 Email:

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Nine Steps of Crisis Response 5 6 7 Crisis Occurs Verify situation Conduct notification Conduct assessment activate crisis plan Organize assignments Prepare information and obtain approvals Release information to media public partners through arranged channels Obtain feedback and conduct crisis evaluation 8 Conduct public education 9 Monitor events 04/06/2021 Email:

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5 communication steps that boost operational success 1. Execute a solid communication plan 2. Be the first source for information 3. Express empathy early 4. Show competence and expertise 5. Remain honest and open 04/06/2021 Email:

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Selecting the CMT ➢ Skills of the spokesperson ➢Appear pleasant on camera visual nonverbal ➢Answer questions effectively ➢Don’t argue with reporters ➢Avoid “no comment” comment 65 believe “no comment” “guilty” ➢Challenge incorrect information ➢Assess assumptions of questions ➢Legitimize ➢Present information clearly ➢ Avoid jargon ➢ Provide structure 5/8/2015 16 6 04/06/2021 Email:

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Develop Crisis Management Plan ➢What is it ➢A potential action plan ➢Used during the crisis ➢Focuses on “how-to” ➢What it is not ➢Overly detailed ➢Rigid 5/8/2015 16 7 04/06/2021 Email:

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Prepare Information and Obtain Approvals ➢Develop message. ➢Identify audiences. ➢What do media want to know ➢Show empathy. ➢What is the organization’s response ➢Identify action steps for public. ➢Execute the approval process from the plan. 04/06/2021 Email:

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Need More Breathing Room Response to Inquiries you are authorized to give out the following information Date: Time: Approved by: This is an evolving emergency and I know that just like we do you want as much information as possible right now. While we work to get your questions answered as quickly as possible I want to tell you what we can confirm right now: At approximately time a brief description of what happened . At this point we do not know the number of persons ill persons exposed injuries deaths etc.. We have a system plan procedure operation in place for just such an emergency and we are being assisted by police FBI EOC as part of that plan. The situation is undernot yet under control and we are working with local State Federal authorities to e.g. contain this situation determine how this happened determine what actions may be needed by individuals and the community to prevent this from happening again. We will continue to gather information and release it to you as soon as possible. I will be back to you within amount of time 2 hours or less to give you an update. As soon as we have more confirmed information it will be provided. We ask for your patience as we respond to this emergency. Try this for an initial press statement 04/06/2021 Email:

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Selecting Spokespersons ➢Principle - “One voice is more important than one person” ➢Role - Manage the accuracy consistency of the messages coming from the organization ➢Communication should be guided by the 5 C’s: Concern clarity control confidence competence 5/8/2015 17 0 04/06/2021 Email:

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Prepare Crisis Communication System ➢Physical setup ➢Prepare tools ➢Intranet ➢Internet ➢Phones ➢Prepare team 5/8/2015 17 1 04/06/2021 Email:

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Public Information Release Select the appropriate channels of communication and apply them: Simply Timely Accurately Repeatedly Credibly Consistently 04/06/2021 Email:

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Public Information Release ➢Continue to monitor for feedback ➢Execute planned steps with stakeholders ➢Reassess these elements throughout the event 04/06/2021 Email:

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Obtain Feedback and Conduct Crisis Evaluation ➢Conduct response evaluation ➢Analyze feedback from customers ➢Analyze media coverage ➢Conduct a hot wash ➢Develop a SWOT ➢Share with leadership ➢Revise crisis plans 04/06/2021 Email:

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Conduct Public Education Post-event ➢Highlight related public health issues ➢Consider audiences not directly involved in the crisis ➢Institutionalize crisis materials 04/06/2021 Email:

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5/8/2015 86 Cont. 5 - managing post-crisis ➢Assessing effectiveness ➢Examine records ➢Look at phases of crisis ➢Determine changes 04/06/2021 Email:

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Conclusion • Crisis is part of life we must prepare for it • It is a learning curve that transform nations and organisations • Both public and private organisation are not immune from it. • The 3 stages of CM – pre-crisis response and post crisis are common to all organisation • Strategic execution may defer but the result is to end crisis within a short period of time. • Adequate preparation breeds prompt effective crisis management Email: 05/06/2021

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Conclusion • Be conversant with major stakeholders nuances and movement during this period for specific response • Consistency of message is needful and advised Email: 05/06/2021

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References Bibiliography • Arivalan. Ramaiyah PhD. CRISIS COMMUNICATION:Taking Strategic Lead During Crisis. Accessed on May 12/2021 from communication-47895963 • Nupur Bhardwaj. Crisis Management. Accessed on May 20/2021 from • 5 Key Differences Between Organizations in the Public and Private Sectors. Retrieved on Nov. 26 2018 from organizations-in-the-public-and-private-sectors/ • Ajila C. Awonusi A. 2004. Influence of Rewards on Workers Performance in an Organization. Journal of Social Sciences 8 1: 7-12. • Avis William Robert. 2016. Urban governance - The role of the private sector. Topic Guide November 2016. Retrieved on Dec. 2 2018 from governance/elements-of-effective-urban-governance/the-role-of-the-private-sector/ • Babafemi Smith. The Public and Private Sectors in Nigeria: A Management Comparison. Retrieved on Dec 1 2018 from Private_Sectors_in_ Nigeria_A_Management_Comparison • Bernstein Jonathan. The 10 Biggest Mistakes in Crisis Communications. Accessed on May 21/2021 from communications/ • Bernstein Jonathan. The 10 Steps of Crisis Communications. Retrieved on May 25 2021 from • Boin et al. 2005 The Politics of Crisis Management. Retrieved on May 30.2021 from Email: 05/06/2021

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References Bibiliography • Chas. W. Freeman Sally Marks. Diplomacy. Retrieved on Oct 3 2018 from topic/diplomacy • Cleverism. Diplomacy. • Dilenschneider R. L. 2000. The corporate communications bible: Everything you need to know to become a public relations expert. Beverly Hills: New Millennium pp. 120-142. • Haque M.S. 2001. “The Diminishing Publicness of Public Service under the Current Mode of Governance” Public Administration Review Vol. 6 No. 1 January/February: 65-82. • Ikupolati Mike P. The Strength and Relevance of Diplomacy in Conflict Management Governance. Oct 5 2018 CIPDM Induction/training Lecture in Port Harcourt. • Institute for PR. 2007. Crisis Management and Communications. Accessed on 25/2021 from • Michael. S. Lund. Preventing Violent Conflicts: A Strategy for Preventive Diplomacy USIP Press 1996 • Okonjo-Iweala N and Osafo-Kwaako P 2007. “Nigeria’s Economic Reforms Progress and Challenges”. The Brookings Institution Washington DC. • Osemeke M. 2011 "Problems and Prospects of Private Sector Organizations in Nigeria". International Journal of Business and Management. Vol. 6 No. 4 April 2011. • Ropella Patrick B. 2012. Avoid the Top 10 Mistakes Leaders Make in a Crisis. Accessed on May 21/2021 from 28/avoid-the-top-10-mistakes-leaders-make-in-a-c/ Email: 05/06/2021

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References Bibiliography • Rozanov Alexander Maria Ivanchenko Alexandra Baranova Mikhail Smirnov Olga Belyaeva Alexander Barannikov Mikhail Ilichev Ludmila Ilicheva Biyaslan Tambiev Maria Krotovskaya Vladimir Chilingaryan Tatiana Grabovich Zaru Dulatkyzy Alla Nikolaeva Svetlana Ivanova Kwame Boateng Mattia Masolletti Marina Danilina Dmitry Medvedev and Natalya Ogneva May 2nd 2020. Crisis Management and Communication Strategies: RUSAL’s Case Public Sector Crisis Management Alexander Rozanov Alexander Barannikov Olga Belyaeva and Mikhail Smirnov IntechOpen DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.91644. Available from: communication-strategies-rusal-s-case • Sarumi Oyewole. Identifying Leadership Management Approaches to Governance with Diplomacy as a Tool for Conflict Resolution. Oct.13 2018 CIPDM Induction/training Lecture in Abeokuta. • Tanzi V. 1995. “Fiscal Federalism and Decentralization: A review of some efficiency and macroeconomic aspects". Paper prepared for the World Banks Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics Washington D.C.: World Bank 1995. • The difference between public and private sector management • The Institute of Internal Auditors 2011 Supplemental Guidance: Public Sector Definition - Online p. 1. Available from Accessed: 30th October 2014. • Thompson Sophie 2018 The Complete Guide to Crisis Management and Communication. Retrieved May 25/2021 from management-guide Email: 05/06/2021

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