Developing Administrative & Management Skills in Mitigating Their Chal

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Organisation, private and public thrives when there is a blend of management and administrative skills in the right proportion. The fact is with adequate resources and personnel, the absence of good management and administration will spell doom for any organisation. Hence, the importance of both management and administration in organisations cannot be over-emphasised. Just like life, there must be issues and challenges especially when the organisation is a living and learning one. The charge is to identify such issues and challenges on time and map out strategies to address them to avoid adverse effect on the overall bottom-line and survival of the organisation. This paper seeks to focus on developing administrative and management skills to address the issues and challenges that cropped up using diplomatic tools and skills thereby assisting to build a strong organisation that is not only effective but also efficient in the delivery of good dividends to all stakeholders.

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Developing Administrative Management Skills in Mitigating Their Challenges and Issues Through Diplomacy TRAINING/INDUCTION CEREMONY PAPER Oyewole O. Sarumi PhD FCPDM FCIPMN MITD Registrar CIPDM Lagos. Tel: +234 803 304 1421 Email: tlstrategiesgmail.com

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 1 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism Developing Administrative Management Skills in Mitigating Their Challenges and Issues Through Diplomacy Oyewole O. Sarumi PhD FCPDM FCIPMN – Registrar CIPDM Lagos. Tel: +234 803 304 1421 Email: tlstrategiesgmail.com Opening Thought: “Increasingly public administration practitioners and academicians are faced with demands from politicians and citizens that government should be operated like a business. By this they mean it should be cost efficient”. - Richard C. Box in his article ‘Running Government like a Business. Implication for Public Administration. Theory and Practice’. Learning Objectives At the end of this session participants will be able to: • Define administration management leadership and diplomacy. • Describe challenges and issues in management and administration • Explain administrative theory as a political theory • Identify the types of administration and management • Differentiate between administration management and leadership. • Discuss the spectrum and intersection of administrative and management skills • State the dimensions of varying diplomatic tool/skills and • Apply diplomacy tools/skills to mitigate administration and management challenges and issues in organisations. I. INTRODUCTION Organisation private and public thrives when there is a blend of management and administrative skills in the right proportion. The fact is with adequate resources and personnel the absence of good management and administration will spell doom for any organisation. Hence the importance of both management and administration in organisations cannot be over-emphasised. Just like life there must be issues and challenges especially when the organisation is a living and learning one. The charge is to identify such issues and challenges on time and map out strategies to address them to avoid adverse effect on the overall bottom-line and survival of the organisation. One thing is certain: it is not at all an easy task to locate the sources of problem faced by admin- istration especially but some of the problems may be noted. However in management there are many issues and challenges that are bugging organisations in this contemporary times. An important aspect of public administration of any modern state is that it is not properly and efficiently managed. This is because huge amount of money is spent behind the running of public administration but the ultimate result does not satisfy the demands of people or it is not cost efficient at all. This may not be the case in private enterprise but in public organisations the cost of a state-sponsored project far surpasses the benefit it produces. This is very commonly found in almost all states specifically in the developing nations Samit 2014.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 2 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism Administrative procedures are part of nearly every public and private organization. Western democracies have evolved systems which balance political direction and control against the need for effective and efficient management of the administrative functions which complex modern societies require. However many African and evolving democracies are still grappling with the intricacies of blending strong administrative system with tenets of democracy without impinging of the rights of citizenry while delivering good governance. There has been a huge and on-going development in the administrative functions in the 21st century. This dynamic development has resulted in steady increase in human and instrumental resources in the public administration worldwide. The emergence of new public interests and new arenas of intervention have caused important changes in the machinery and system of public administration. This paper seeks to focus on developing administrative and management skills to address the issues and challenges that cropped up using diplomatic tools and skills thereby assisting to build a strong organisation that is not only effective but also efficient in the delivery of good dividends to all stakeholders. II. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS a. Definitions of Administration ✓ management of the affairs of an organization such as a business or institution ✓ the duties of an administrator ✓ the body of people who administer an organization. ✓ the conduct of the affairs of government ✓ term of office: often used of presidents governments etc. ✓ the executive branch of government along with the public service the government as a whole In Property law - from Longman dictionary: A. the conduct or disposal of the estate of a deceased person B. the management by a trustee of an estate subject to a trust Some Author’s definitions: • Marx defines administration as - Administration is determined action taken in pursuit of a conscious purpose. It is the systematic ordering of affairs and the calculated use of resources aimed at making those happen which one wants to happen. • Frederic k Lane defines administration as organizing and maintaining human and fiscal resources to attain a group’s goals. • “Administration is the organization direction of human material resources to achieve desired ends.” - Pfiffner Presthus. • “Administration is the direction coordination and control of many persons to achieve some purposes or objectives.” - L.D. White

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 3 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism From Scientific point of view: Administration is regarded as: ✓ a directed coordination and organisation of an object in the discussion towards targeted goals ✓ A scope of human activity which originated as a result of division of labour to help people influence technological economic and social processes for attainment of specific goals. ✓ A process which provides necessary targeted transformation of energy substance and information while maintaining working capacity and fail-safe operation to achieve targeted goals. b. What is Management Harold koontz - “Management is the art of getting things done through others and with formally organised groups.” F.W. Taylor - “Management is the art of knowing what you want to do and then seeing that they do it in the best and the cheapest manner.” George R. Terry - “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning organising actuating and controlling utilising in each both science and arts and followed in order to accomplish pre-determined objective.” Peter Drucker - “Management is a multipurpose organ that manage a business and manages managers and manages workers and work.” c. What is Leadership Leadership - Leadership is an influence process that enable managers to get their people to do willingly what must be done do well what ought to be done. Cribbin J.J. Leadership is interpersonal influence exercised in a situation and directed through the communication process toward the attainment of a specified goal or goals. Tannenbaum Weschler Massarik Byrd defined leadership as: “the leaders ability to anticipate envision maintain flexibility and empower others to create strategic change as necessary”. Vecchio defined leadership as: “the process through which leaders influence the values behaviors and attitudes of others”. Meaning of Leadership: Art of motivating a group of people. Ability to influencing a group toward the achievement of goals. It is the skill of influencing the behavior of others. Why is Leadership important Research shows that most will achieve about 60 of their potentials without leadership but the additional 40 potential is achievable with effective leadership. d. Understanding Diplomacy Generally diplomacy is an art and a way of life. It is an age-old process through which agreements are negotiated among nations Adeniran 1983:179. Diplomatic skills equip you to

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 4 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism navigate conflicts and challenging conversations. The objective of diplomacy is to conduct ‘business’ and achieve the goals of a particular state or organization in a given context. Now let us examine various definitions from different perspectives: What is Diplomacy It is: ✓ the art and practice of conducting negotiations and maintaining relations between parties ✓ skill in handling affairs without arousing animousity – USA Dept of State ✓ the art of dealing with people in a sensitive and tactful way. ✓ “the art and practice of conducting negotiations between nations” in order to implement those polices and pursue those interests. ✓ “the instrument of communication not the message communicated.” - Edward Marks ✓ “This is the classic function of diplomacy: to effect the communications between one’s own government and other governments or individuals abroad and to do this with maximum accuracy imagination tact and good sense.” George Kennan ✓ A skill set that enhances your ability to manage internal and external relationships in a job. ✓ As the ‘science of relations…resulting from mutual interests’. Charles Calvo ✓ Diplomacy is adapting differences through negotiations. - Henry Kissinger ✓ A method of influencing the decisions and behaviors of others through dialogue negotiations without the use of force which involves deployment of ‘soft power’. ✓ Tact and subtle skill in dealing with people so as to avoid or settle hostility. ✓ the skill for dealing with people effectively in a positive way including the foreign relations with other countries. Diplomacy was first developed as an instrument of inter-state relations which later necessitated the adoption of regulations in order to protect state sovereignty such as Diplomatic Immunities and Privileges Act No. 42 of 1962 however its usage has since been extended to business management. In the business environment diplomacy is seen as the art and practice of conducting negotiations between organizations buyers and sellers as well as private businesses and government. There are several definitions of diplomacy with regards to business management. Business diplomacy as a firms ability to establish and sustain positive relationships with different stakeholders including governments businesses and non-business stakeholders to obtain legitimacy and a social license to operate. Ruël and Wolters 2013 Business diplomacy is a way to constructively engage and negotiate with multiple business and non-business stakeholders mitigate geopolitical and commercial risk and influence actors within the global arena Alammar Pauleen 2015. Business diplomacy management as an activity that ‘pertains to the management of interfaces between the global company and its multiple non-business counterparts’ Saner and Yiu 2005 p. 302. From these definitions it can be inferred that diplomacy denote the tact courteous and savvy displayed by someone for his relations with others. It is used for peaceful resolution of disputes without resort to violence.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 5 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism III. THE CHALLENGES AND ISSUES IN MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION A. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION In a dynamic and turbulent environment where social economic and political problems mount and the demands of society increase faster than the capacity of available resources to provide for government especially the administrative organization for carrying out policies and implement projects and programs is called upon to adopt appropriate mechanisms to cope with these concerns. The bureaucracy is faced with crucial issues and challenges. Should public administration be ethnocentric or universal Should public administration be guided primarily by theories and principles for whatever these are worth or should it adapt itself to environmental pressures and consequently seek new approaches for responding to the challenges of the environment Principles of administration are universal but their applicability and relevance may yet be conditioned by the physical and social environment. Technology aims at making life more convenient and improving the quality of life by introducing new methods and approaches to service delivery. The management of the economy for example may require new perspectives especially with the advent of the debt problem borrowing and repayment schemes. A development-oriented public administration must consider as major concerns productivity efficiency effectiveness accountability budgetary deficits and unstable economy insecurity among others. It must address the problems of poverty sky- rocketing inflation ecology social justice inequality and disproportionate distribution of the goods of society. Ferrel Heady 1978 posit that Administration in developing countries is characterized by the following: • It has an imitative rather than a indigenous pattern characterized by some version of modern western bureaucratic administration. • It is deficient in skilled manpower necessary for developmental programs there is shortage of trained administrators with management capability development skills and technical competence. • There is emphasis on orientation other than production-directed and program-oriented goals. It uses the public service as substitute for a social security program and a means to help solve the unemployment problem. • There is wide discrepancy between format and reality as demonstrated by the urge to make things seem more than what they actually are resulting in a gap between expectations and realities. • It has a generous measure of operational autonomy as several groups converge in the bureaucracy. There are technical experts professional experts or technocrats and the military each desirous to formulate and implement policy decisions on their own respective turfs. 1. THE TWO BASIC ISSUES There are two basic issues of Public Administration today as surmised by Lugtu 2014 • Policy issues which involve the core role public administrators.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 6 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism • Organization issues which are instrumental aspects of management or factors involved in internal administration. a. POLICY ISSUES The range of policy issues the public administrator has to deal with includes the following: •Welfare Policy - like regulation and control of urban sprawl slum clearance public housing control of crimes transport education revenue sourcing social insurance health policy and public assistance. •Economic Issues – like tax sources credit control stock market operation and regulation antitrust enforcement encouragement of small business debt burden and loan repayment. •Labor Policy – which includes regulation of industrial dispute workers right to organize and stage strike government encouragement to the formulation of labor movements and the impact of labor group pressure upon policy and administration. •Resource Policy – which have to do with such concerns like shrinking farm population price control of agricultural products form of agricultural assistance and subsidies cooperative movements land use planning natural resource conservation energy supply providing balance between population and resources. b. ORGANIZATION ISSUES • Planning of Policies and Programs – with the use of plans the consciousness of those responsible for making decisions may be modified and necessary changes identified and implemented. • Centralization Argues • Lateral and Horizontal Allocation of Responsibilities and programs • Lack of Coordination • Decision Making and Program Management controlling and evaluating performance – policies developing strategies assigning roles elicit participation and cooperation • Confronting public management is how to deal with negative bureaucratic behavior abuse of discretion and over indulgence red tape graft and corruption. c. OTHER SIGNIFICANT ISSUES • Proactive management must look into the future. One prognosis is that in the years to come there will be more professionals in the work force. This could mean added expertise inputs to government service. • Influence upon political and administrative decision making is significantly powerful. • More public interest groups will pursue collective and community oriented goals demanding environmental conservation clean air eradication of poverty equitable allocation of goods and services and this groups completed by citizen awareness of the responsibilities of government and will be more critical of government policies. • The environment of society is fast changing the challenges are continuous there are no permanent solutions. Lugtu A. 2014 B. MAJOR ADMINISTRATIVE ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN NIGERIA According to Walyben 2020 major administrative problems in developing countries like Nigeria include the following:

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 7 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism 1. Recruitment and promotion Major administrative problem faced by developing countries is that of recruitment and promotion. Recruitment into the administrative class posses the most serious problem of all the other class of the civil service whereas there are prescribed qualifications for entering into the professional class there are no prescribed qualification into the administrative class. All that is required is a good honorary degree in any discipline in addition to being successful in a competitive entrance examination. In other word the administrative class is composed of all sorts of people drawn from different discipline. The majority of these people lack the basic concept and knowledge relevant to their area of administrations appropriate to their areas of responsibility. In term of promotion there is excessive dependence on seniority rather than merit. As a result many innovators and achievement-oriented persons are over-looked and marginalized. This situation where excellence and merit are sacrificed on the altar of seniority cripples initiative and stifles morale in the civil service. 1. Remuneration: The civil service has been faced with unstructured remuneration since independence although few attempts have been made to rationalize and harmonize salaries and wages and other conditions of employment in the civil service. The remuneration has in several occasions resulted in industrial action by public servant. 2. Corruption and tribalism: Another major administrative problem in a developing countries is corruption. Civil servants especially those in high positions are noted for asking for gratification to perform their official functions. This really account for the artificial bottleneck in the public service. Corruption has eaten deep into the fabrics of the nation especially the civil service such that even promotion can hardly be done on merit. 3. Relationship between politicians and civil servants: The relationship between politicians who are ministers and civil servants who are permanent secretary or director general in the Nigeria public service has always been controversial and worrisome. In the case of politicians and civil servants conflict always arises when the politician encroaches into administrative matters which are within the prerogative of the permanent secretary. Whenever there is such problem the general public is always the victim. 4. Political instability: Frequent changes in the leadership of the country affect the civil service adversely. In some cases it causes premature retirement of the civil servant which sometimes contravenes the statute of the civil service.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 8 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism The statute of the civil service states that a civil servant cannot be arbitrarily retired job security is ensured. In other word permanency which is one of the characteristics of civil service is usually eroded. In summary the civil service has been criticized of the following: low productivity over staffing ghost worker indiscipline red tape or red tapism rigidity over centralization and secrecy. Other challenges of public administration are: 5. Governance: Balancing the role of various organs in the process of governance like public sector corporate sector NGOs civil society etc. in the contemporary era of globalisation liberalisation and privatisation. 6. Ensuring sustainable development. 7. Removing trust deficit between administration and people. 8. Last but not the least raising ethics and morality level in administration. 9. Lack of independence 10. Infiltration of partisan politics 11. Lack of adequate funds for training 12. Weak Public Service These are some of the challenges facing the profession and one of the fastest way to ameliorate them is to strengthen the institution of public service since they are the major employers of Administrators without independence and adequate funds implementation of Government policies can be manipulated and done haphazardly which in turn leads to poor policy execution and lack of loyalty to the executive arm of the government. The unfortunate lack of training in public service especially for newly employed graduate or middle executives is also a challenge that can only be addressed when the government understands the importance of public administration to achieving set goals and objectives rolled out by the government. Until your relevance is known and felt the government wont take you seriously. The laws must be amended to provide the basic amenities and facilities needed for executors of Government plans and policies to effectively perform their functions. C. WHAT ARE THE 3 PROBLEMS OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION ACCORDING TO ROBERT DAHL “Dahl noted the difficulty of constructing a science of public administration that was plagued by three interrelated problems: values behaviour and culture. Underlying all three problems was the presumption that public administration could establish a set of universal principles independent of moral or political ends individual human differences or social influences. In discussing these three broad and easily accessible themes. “adapted from willey library In a nutshell human behaviour exemplified by cultural norms etc. gets in the way of public administration operating as a pure science. This also happens with economics. In other words when humans are involved ‘science’ is not the only determining factor. Thats why public administration and economics are usually considered to be social sciences. In essence values behaviour and culture create problems for public administration to be like a science.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 9 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism D. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN MANAGEMENT There are two eternal truths: life is about change and managing people is never easy. To compound the issue managers are now facing new challenges. The changing economic world is throwing new challenges to the managers while the pandemic has produced a rapidly changing business environment and created a number of new obstacles. Thus there are myriads of changes taking place which are influencing the work of managers. Some of these changes include: 1. Responding to globalization 2. Managing with accountability 3. Action with responsiveness 4. Managing workforce diversity 5. Responding to changing environment 6. Improving quality and productivity 7. Stimulating innovation and change 8. Improving ethical behavior 9. Managing institutional social responsibility 10. Knowledge management 11. Managing with the world of ICTs 12. Helping employees balance work and life conflicts 13. Creating positive tensions 14. Improving customer services 15. Promoting entrepreneurship 16. Coping with temporariness 17. Managing with multiple responsibilities 18. Improving people skills 19. Working in networked organizations 20. Developing the generation next 21. Managing innovative work teams 22. Responding to changing expectations 23. Contingent workers 24. Innovation and change 25. Empowerment and teams 26. Downsizing 27. Managing talents To transform yourself as an effective diplomatic manager and leader inculcate your professional vision on these elements and you will be fitted into the future of work. IV. ADMINISTRATIVE THEORY AS A POLITICAL THEORY Let us first examine administrative theory and how administrative system devolve from it. a. The Administrative Theory The Administrative Theory is based on the concept of departmentalization which means the different activities to be performed for achieving the common purpose of the organization should be identified and be classified into different groups or departments such that the task can be accomplished effectively. The other difference between these two is the administrative theory focuses on improving the efficiency of management first so that the processes can be standardized and then moves to the operational level where the individual workers are made to learn the changes and implement those in their routine jobs. While in the case of the scientific management theory it emphasizes on improving the efficiency of the workers at the operating level first which in turn improves the efficiency of the management. Thus the administrative theory follows the top-down approach while the scientific management theory follows the bottom-up approach. b. Administrative System - What is ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM The system that is created by legislation where an agency is empowered to make a binding rule and regulation.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 10 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism It is an integrated application used in operation and tracking of HRM and effective utilisation of resources to achieve set goals. c. Administrative Procedures Administrative Procedures are a set or system of rules that govern the procedures for managing an organization. These procedures are meant to establish efficiency consistency responsibility and accountability. d. The Importance of Administrative Procedures Administrative procedures are important because they provide an objective set of rules by which an organization is governed. They also help establish the legitimacy of management action by ensuring the application of management rules and decisions is done in an objective fair and consistent manner. They also help ensure that managers are held accountable for decisions that deviate from the procedures. e. Administrative Procedures in Private Organizations Administrative procedures are implemented as a set of rules for making decisions regarding key management functions. These rules are objective and usually written in order to ensure consistency and fairness. E.g. set of administrative procedures is the rules policies and procedures outlined in your typical employee handbook or manual. The typical handbook - Outlines such procedures as requests for vacation time sick leave dress code company holidays and grievance procedures. Also there are set of administrative procedures that are for the sole use of management such as procedures governing hiring firing promotion and budgeting just to name a few. 60-80 of expenses are due to administrative processes. Administrative processes are the office tasks that keeps a company humming along. Administrative processes include human resources marketing and accounting. Basically anything that entails managing the information that supports a business is an administrative process. f. Administration from Organisations perspective To understand administration from the context and setting of an organization it can be roughly explained that: the top leadership or the Board decides the vision mission short- and long-term goals and the business unit heads then draw out action plans and create or reform processes allot responsibilities direct planning get people on board and start working towards achieving those set goals as per defined guidelines. So the Board can be the Government and the Business Unit Heads and their teams can be the public administrators who are the implementers and actually the people who run the show. V. TYPES OF ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT A. Types of Administration It includes among others:

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 11 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism ✓ Public Administration ✓ Business Administration ✓ Office Administration ✓ Development Administration ✓ Personnel Administration 1. Business Administration - Business administration is management of a business. It includes all aspects of overseeing and supervising business operations and related fields which include accounting finance and marketing. 2. Public Administration - According to L D White Public administration consists of all those operations having for their purpose the fulfillment or enforcement of public policy. On the other hand as per Woodrow Wilson public administration is a detailed and systematic application of law. One can also say that public administration is nothing but the policies practices rules and regulation etc. in action. Can public administration be divorced from social and political systems certainly not. So F. A. Nigro argues that public administration is: essentially a cooperative group effort in public setting covers all the three branches of government machinery the executive the legislative and the judicial. He added: since public administration plays a crucial role in formulation of policies therefore it is a part of the political process as well for e.g. Bills and Acts. Negro said: public administration is different from private administration in numerous ways and that it interacts with various private groups and individuals in providing services to the community.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 12 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism 3. The Nature Of Public Administration: On the nature of public administration there have been two popular views: • The Integral view - Is all encompassing and consists of sum total of all managerial clerical technical and manual activities and employees form all levels. endorsed by L D White and Dimock. It may differ from one agency to another depending on their sphere of work. • The Managerial view - Says that the public administration involves only the managerial activities. supported by Simon Smithburg Thompson and Luther Gulick. 4. Development Administration - Development administration is the name often given to the way a country’s government acts to fulfill its role in achieving development. Riggs 1977. “Development administration” is generally similar to the traditional “public administration” in its concern with how a government implements its rules policies and norms. It differs however in its objectives scope and complexity. Development administration is more innovative since it is concerned with the societal changes involved in achieving developmental objectives. The three areas of concern: • How purposefully to guide government action toward development objectives • How actually to take account of the many and complex interdependencies of societal and complex interdependencies of societal change and • How to ensure that governmental administration is dynamic and innovative. The function of development administration is to assure that an appropriately congenial environment and effective administration support are provided for delivery of capital materials and services where needed in the materials and services where needed in the productive process –whether in public private or mixed economies. Or mixed economies. Gant 1979 Six Groups of Needed Inputs: a Skilled Manpower b Finances c Logistics or facilities for the physical flow of goods and services d Information facilities for the physical transmission of data e Participation of individuals and groups and participation of individuals and groups and f Legitimate power to enforce decisions. Note - these six inputs together compose the content of development action. 5. The Nature of Administration It is universal. It is holistic. It is continuous on-going process. It is goal oriented. It is social human nature. It is dynamic. It is creative or innovative.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 13 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism 6. Administration of a Business The administration of a business includes: ✓ performance or management of business operations and decision making ✓ efficient organization of people and other resources to direct activities toward common goals and objectives. ✓ Generally administration refers to the broader management function including the associated finance personnel and MIS services 7. Effective Administration Effective administration depends on three basic personal skills which have been called technical human and conceptual. The administrator needs: a. sufficient technical skill to accomplish the mechanics of the particular job for which he is responsible b. sufficient human skill in working with others to be an effective group member and to be able to build cooperative effort within the team he leads c. sufficient conceptual skill to recognize the interrelationships of the various factors involved in his situation which will lead him to take that action which is likely to achieve the maximum good for the total organization. 8. Nigeria Administrative System The Nigeria Administrative system is made up of 3 level: Executive Legislative and Judiciary. Each of this level are affected by macro and micro environmental factors. The scope of this paper is inadequate to investigate or discuss fully the significance of influences of these environmental variables on the Nigeria Administrative system. echnica S i s uman S i s once tua and esign S i s Su er isory e e

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 14 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism B. Levels of Management In other to fully understand where types of management come to play it is necessary to quick discuss the levels of management that are present in organisations. Most organizations have three management levels: • Low-level managers • Middle-level managers and • Top-level managers. These managers are classified in a hierarchy of authority and perform different tasks. In many organizations the number of managers in every level resembles a pyramid. Below you’ll find the specifications of each level’s different responsibilities and their likely job titles. 1. Top-level managers The board of directors president vice-president and CEO are all examples of top-level managers. These managers are responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organization. They develop goals strategic plans company policies and make decisions on the direction of the business. In addition top-level managers play a significant role in the mobilization of outside resources. Top-level managers are accountable to the shareholders and general public.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 15 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism 2. Middle-level managers General managers branch managers and department managers are all examples of middle-level managers. They are accountable to the top management for their department’s function. Middle-level managers devote more time to organizational and directional functions than top- level managers. Their roles can be emphasized as: • Executing organizational plans in conformance with the company’s policies and the objectives of the top management • Defining and discussing information and policies from top management to lower management and most importantly • Inspiring and providing guidance to low-level managers towards better performance. Some of their functions are as follows: • Designing and implementing effective group and intergroup work and information systems • Defining and monitoring group-level performance indicators • Diagnosing and resolving problems within and among work groups • Designing and implementing reward systems supporting cooperative behavior. 3. Low-level managers Supervisors section leads and foremen are examples of low-level management titles. These managers focus on controlling and directing. Low-level managers usually have the responsibility of: • Assigning employees tasks • Guiding and supervising employees on day-to-day activities • Ensuring the quality and quantity of production • Making recommendations and suggestions and • Upchanneling employee problems. Also referred to as first-level managers low-level managers are role models for employees. These managers provide: • Basic supervision • Motivation

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 16 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism • Career planning • Performance feedback and • Staff supervision. C. Types of Management Now what the types of management that organisation uses for its operations They are diverse and many depending on the objectives Management is doing things right. Its the discipline of planning organizing leading and controlling an organization. Management has many faces. The fact is that managers have many styles and management has many types. According to Anna Mar 2013 the most common types of management are discussed briefly below: 1. Strategic Management: Strategic management looks at an organizations overall strategy formation and execution with the goal of growing and sustaining competitive advantage. Strategic management is an executive function that may report to the owners of a firm. 2. Sales Management: Management of sales territories teams or accounts. 3. Marketing Management: Management of marketing strategies products brands and promotions. 4. Public Relations Management: Managing communications between an organization and the public. 5. Operations Management: The management of production of goods and services. Operations management is a broad field that describes everything from manufacturing management to retail management. 6. Supply Chain Management: Managing the process of moving a product or service from supplier to customer. 7. Procurement Management: Managing the acquisition of goods and services from external sources. 8. Financial Accounting Management: Managing financial and accounting processes and teams. 9. Human Resources Management: Responsible for attracting hiring training compensating rewarding and managing the performance of employees. Human resources places a key role in forming and overseeing an organizations culture. 10. Information Technology Management: Managing information technology teams and processes. 11. RD Management: The management of research development processes and teams.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 17 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism 12. Engineering Management: Managing the application of engineering to business solutions. For example new product development manufacturing and construction. 13. Program Management: Program management is the management of an ongoing portfolio of projects. 14. Project Management: Project management is the planning organization and control of projects. 15. Risk Management: Risk management is the discipline of identifying assessing and controlling the chance that objectives and processes will have negative consequences. 16. Change Management: Change management applies a structured approach to business change. The goal of change management is to help organizations and teams make smooth transitions to target states. 17. Quality Management: The management of quality planning control assurance and improvement. 18. Innovation Management: The management of innovation processes such as strategy research development or organizational change. 19. Design Management: The management of design processes such as new product design. 20. Facility Management: The management of facilities such as offices and data centres. 21. Knowledge Management: Knowledge management enables the identification creation representation distribution and use of knowledge. In a knowledge driven economy this has become a critical field. VI. THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT a. Management and Administration: The differences and meeting point Management: the act or skill of directing and organizing the work of a company or organization the people who are in charge of a company or organization the act or skill of dealing with a situation that needs to be controlled in some way. Administration: all activities that are involved in managing and organizing the affairs of a company or institution the government of a country at a particular time. In this paper I would like to use two schools of thought to highlight the differences between Management and Administration. The first uses the Eight categories of differentiating characteristics.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 18 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism These are objectives success criteria resource use decision making structure roles skills and attitudes. The second thought is according to Prachi Juneja in Management Study Guide where he summarized the difference between Management and Administration under 2 categories: - Functions and Usage / Applicability. On the Basis of Functions: - Basis Management Administration Meaning Management is an art of getting things done through others by directing their efforts towards achievement of pre-determined goals. It is concerned with formulation of broad objectives plans policies. Nature Management is an executing function. Administration is a decision- making function. Process Management decides who should as it how should he dot it. Administration decides what is to be done when it is to be done. Function Management is a doing function because managers get work done under their supervision. Administration is a thinking function because plans policies are determined under it. Skills Technical and Human skills Conceptual and Human skills Level Middle lower level function Top level function On the Basis of Usage: - Basis Management Administration Applicability It is applicable to business concerns i.e. profit-making organization. It is applicable to non-business concerns i.e. clubs schools hospitals etc. Influence The management decisions are influenced by the values opinions beliefs decisions of the managers. The administration is influenced by public opinion govt. policies religious organizations customs etc. Status Management constitutes the employees of the organization who are paid remuneration in the form of salaries wages. Administration represents owners of the enterprise who earn return on their capital invested profits in the form of dividend.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 19 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism Practically there is no difference between management administration. Every manager is concerned with both - administrative management function and operative management function as shown in the figure. However the managers who are higher up in the hierarchy denote more time on administrative function the lower level denote more time on directing and controlling worker’s performance i.e. management. The Figure above clearly shows the degree of administration and management performed by the different levels of management.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 20 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism b. Leadership Management and Administration: The differences and meeting point Administration: • Sergiovanni 1991 defined administration as a process of working with and through others to accomplish goals efficiently. An administrator then is one who is responsible for carrying out this process. Administrative theorists describe the essential roles and tasks of administration as planning organizing leading and controlling. Management: Management is also concerned with tasks such as planning coordinating directing defining objectives supporting the work of others and evaluating performance. Thus a similarity exists between administration and management. Leadership: Leadership is the exercise of high-level conceptual skills and decisiveness. It is envisioning mission developing strategy inspiring people and changing culture Evans 1996 p. 148. From above administration management and leadership are different but related. Perhaps one way of framing it is this: Administration is seeing that the airplanes take off on time and leadership is at least in part articulating why the planes need to take off on time and enlisting others in the purposeful endeavor of making the planes take off on time. Management is seeing to it that once the plane takes off it maintains all other operations for it to reach its destination safely.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 21 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism In another form simply I would like to explain as: Lets assume that we must climb to the top of a hill: execution hold is management showing and going on proper way is administration and making it to climb to that top is leadership. Briefly: Leadership defines the destination. Management gets us to that destination. Administration provides the required logistical services and support to management. OR: Management sets the goal and direction of the organization. Administration sets the technical specifications on how to achieve those goals. Leadership drives motivates and inspires people around the organization to achieve its goals. Administrators are appointed. They have a legitimate power base and can reward and punish. Their ability to influence is founded upon the formal authority inherent in their positions. In contrast leaders may either be appointed or emerge from within a group. Leaders can influence other to perform beyond the actions dictated by formal authority. In this sense managers/ administrators get other people to do but leaders get other people to want to do. The Differentiators: Let’s end it with the differentiators. • Leadership: vision and planning • Management: execution and value creation and • Administration: process and tasks. All are important and in smaller firms one person may be expected to do everything with input or meddling from the owners. Most larger firms have figured out the importance of governance and tend to keep and stick to the above. VII. DEVELOPING ADMINISTRATIVE AND MANAGEMENT SKILLS First let us define the word ‘s i ’. To be successful in planning organizing leading and controlling managers must use a wide variety of skills. What is a skill • A skill is the ability to do something proficiently. • A skill is an acquired and learned ability to translate knowledge into performance. It is the competency that allows for performance to be superior in the field in which the worker has the required skill. https://www.managementstudyhq.com a. Administrative Skills What are Administrative Skills Administrative skills… “…are qualities that help complete tasks related to managing a business.” – Indeed Ed Team “…are those related to running a business or keeping an office organized and are needed for a variety of jobs ranging from office assistants to secretaries to office managers.” – Alison Doyle

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 22 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism This might involve responsibilities such as filing paperwork meeting with internal and external stakeholders presenting important information developing processes answering employee questions and more. There are many administrative skills that help perform these responsibilities in an efficient quality way. Bakare 2021 These skills are highly transferable meaning that the same abilities used at a company specializing in real estate will be relevant and needed at a tech company. People with administrative skills offer the support that enables companies to succeed at their core mission whether its serving clients. Administrative skills are important because they keep business processes running smoothly. Any successful efficient organization should have both administrative professionals who have strong skills in this area as well as individual contributors who have good administrative skills. There are many soft and technical skills management skills that contribute to a strong set of administrative skills. While the technical skills required for administrative tasks may vary from business to business such as proficiency with specific software or platforms there are several soft or “interpersonal” skills common among people with strong administrative skills. A few administrative skills required for efficiency and effectiveness in any workplace include: i. Communication Communication is a crucial skill to have when performing administrative tasks. You must be able to communicate processes and information to others respond clearly to questions and requests and more. You must also be able to use various types of communication including verbal nonverbal written and visual communication. ii. Organization Strong organizational skills to keep your workspace and the office you manage in order. Having an organized desk computer and calendar can help you complete administrative tasks in a quality and time-efficient manner. Administrative professionals might also be in charge of organizing supply closets filing systems processes and more. iii. Teamwork Having strong teamwork skills can help you when collaborating on administrative projects developing a new process communicating and putting a new process into place or delegating tasks. Being a good teammate includes practicing empathy humility and being a good communicator.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 23 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism iv. Responsibility Tasks related to administration are often important to keeping a business running efficiently. So having the responsibility to complete tasks on time and in a quality manner without much oversight is crucial. v. Customer service In administration it is common to answer questions for others or perform certain tasks that others are unable to do themselves. These responsibilities can be performed well with strong customer service skills which include active listening setting expectations and communication. vi. Multi-tasking As an administrative assistant you might be asked to handle multiple tasks simultaneously. It’s not uncommon to have to respond in a timely manner to emails answer calls address in-person requests and handle project requests. Combining other skills like organization and time management gives you the ability to multi-task allowing you to manage multiple responsibilities at once by to be able to efficiently. vii. Time management Because there are so many various responsibilities involved in business administration managing your time wisely is a key skill. Maintaining your calendar planning time to complete tasks and setting proper timeline expectations are all parts of being a strong administrator. viii. Adept in Technology Having the technological skills necessary to perform data entry manage team calendars and create company reports are highly sought-after admin skills. It is important to be familiar with Microsoft Office software like Excel Word PowerPoint Outlook customer relationship management CRM system customer service platform or virtual help desk. A thorough understanding of computer software browsers and operating systems to perform. ix. Enterprise Resource Planning New technology has changed the way we work daily and exploring technology is definitely key to moving forward within a business. A creation of this technological change is Enterprise resource planning ERP. This is a common business process management software that provides one central repository for all information to improve the flow of data across a business. Administrative professionals may be expected to be familiar with ERP software to develop custom report cards. Common ERP software for businesses include financial and payroll software such as Oracle SAP and Pronto.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 24 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism b. Management Skills What are Management Skills Management skills can be defined as… “…. certain attributes or abilities that an executive should possess in order to fulfill specific tasks in an organization.” They include the capacity to perform executive duties in an organization while avoiding crisis situations and promptly solving problems when they occur. Management skills can be developed through learning and practical experience as a manager. The skills help the manager to relate with their fellow co-workers and know how to deal well with their subordinates which allows for the easy flow of activities in the organization. CFI 2021 i. Types of Management Skills Managerial skills fall into three basic categories: technical human relations and conceptual skills. But other experts added 3 additional categories as discussed below. The degree to which each type of skill is used depend upon the level of the manager’s position. Additionally in an increasingly global marketplace it pays for managers to develop a special set of skills to deal with global management issues. According to American social and organizational psychologist Robert Katz and Bartleby research there are six basic types of management skills include: 1. Technical skill 2. Interpersonal skill 3. Conceptual skill 4. Diagnostic skill 5. Design skill 6. Political skills.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 25 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism A brief discussion on each below: 1. Technical Skills Technical skills involve skills that give the managers the ability and the knowledge to use a variety of techniques to achieve their objectives. These skills not only involve operating machines and software production tools and pieces of equipment but also the skills needed to boost sales design different types of products and services and market the services and the products. 2. Conceptual Skills These involve the skills managers present in terms of the knowledge and ability for abstract thinking and formulating ideas. The manager is able to see an entire concept analyze and diagnose a problem and find creative solutions. This helps the manager to effectively predict hurdles their department or the business as a whole may face. 3. Human or Interpersonal Skills The human or the interpersonal skills are the skills that present the managers’ ability to interact work or relate effectively with people. These skills enable the managers to make use of human potential in the company and motivate the employees for better results. 4. Diagnostic and Analytical Skills Diagnostic skills refer to an individuals ability to identify a particular problem and define it. Diagnostic skill refers to the ability to visualize the best response to a situation. It refers to a manager’s analytical ability where a manager can logically and objectively investigate and analyzes a problem or an opportunity and use scientific approaches to arrive at a feasible and optimal solution. It is important however that a manager gets to the root cause of the problem so that the solution is the real and a permanent one rather than simply a short-term or a cosmetic one. This skill overlaps with other skills because a manager may need to use technical human conceptual or political skills to solve the problem that has been diagnosed. Analytical skill means the ability to identify the key variables in a situation. Manager diagnostic skill and Analytical skill helps him to identify possible approaches to a situation. These skills are acquired through formal training practice and experimentation. Diagnostics i.e. shaping your context. Examples of diagnostic skills include attention to detail understanding oneself respecting the opinions of others and being more fact-based. 5. Design Skills Design skills refer to the ability of a person to find solutions to problems in ways that would benefit the organization. It is the ability to imagine how something will look after it is moved around or when its parts are moved or rearranged. In addition to these cognitive abilities or mindset a further set of skills emerge which reinforce the technical nature of design.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 26 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism Alignment repetition contrast hierarchy and balance. These are five words that any designer needs to be incredibly familiar with—they make up what we call the Design Principles which should be used on every design project you work on. They are key in creating any successful design. As a top manager you should not only recognize a problem but also suggest ways to overcome them. If you only see the problem you would become mere “problem watcher” and would prove ineffective. Managers at upper organizational levels should be able to design a rational and feasible solution to the problem by considering the various internal and external factors. 6. Political Skills Political skill is defined as: “The ability to effectively understand others at work and to use such knowledge to influence others to act in ways that enhance one’s personal and/or organizational objectives” Ferris Treadway et al. 2005. Political skill can be described as the ability to get your own way without seeming to be selfish or self-oriented. It is the ability to get your share of power and authority and use it without fear of losing it. Sonia Kukreja 2020 Politically skilled individuals display six important behaviors: thinking before speaking managing up interpersonal influence social astuteness networking ability and sincerity Ferris Davidson Perrewe 2005. It is the most complex of skills in the sense that it is required for establishing the right connections and impressing the right people and then skillfully using these connections to your own advantage. Political skill is most important at the middle management level because middle managers always aspire to reach the top levels of management and right connections help in such aspirations. What are the benefits of political skills In a recent review of the effectiveness of political skills Munyon and colleagues Munyon Summer Thompson Ferris 2015 found that political skill was positively related to self-efficacy job satisfaction organizational commitment work productivity organizational citizen behavior OCB career success and negatively related to physiological strain. They also found that political skills were positively related to task performance because of the personal reputation and self-efficacy of the individual showing partial mediation. The review also focused on which political skill dimensions predicted task performance and found that networking ability interpersonal influence and sincerity predicted task performance although social astuteness did not show a relationship with task performance. CQ NETC Political behavior can also have a negative effect on organizations under certain circumstances. When politically skilled individuals have a strong desire to gain personal power they tend to be cunning manipulative and will use whatever means necessary to gain political power. This extreme form of political behavior is considered one of the dark personality traits called Machiavellianism. Leaders can avoid ineffective organizational politics by selecting the right employees and by providing an environment that emphasizes

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 27 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism the overaching goal of the organization. When those negative effects of political behavior are mitigated organizational politics are rather a blessing than a curse. CQ NETC ii. Some Important Management Skills According to Indeed Editorial Team 2021 the most effective management skills to be developed regardless of your department or industry can be grouped into five primary categories: 1. Leadership 2. Planning 3. Strategy 4. Communication 5. Organization Here is a breakdown of each category with several examples. 1. Leadership As a manager you will likely be responsible for overseeing the work of others and motivating a team toward a common goal. You might also be responsible for leading meetings assigning workloads and supporting collaboration across teams and departments. Well-developed leadership skills will help you coordinate tasks and direct all parties to ensure work is completed according to plan and finished on time. These are also the skills you’ll need to adequately handle leadership duties such as employee evaluations and professional development. Leadership skills examples: Decisiveness Team building Empathy Dependability Constructive criticism Delegating tasks Empowerment Integrity Mentoring Motivating others Patience Relationship management 2. Planning Whether you’re managing people projects or a combination of the two the ability to prepare a vision for the future and strategize solutions is essential to good management. Planning skills help when setting goals and determining the most efficient path to meet objectives. Planning skills examples: • Cognitive skills • Adaptability • Business development • Critical thinking • Flexibility

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 28 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism • Logical reasoning 3. Strategy A strategic manager is someone who can spot inefficiencies and quickly identify solutions to challenges. They can also recognize the steps each team member should take to overcome obstacles and complete projects. Strategy skills examples: • Strategic thinking • Problem-solving • Conflict resolution • Creativity • Analytical thinking 4. Communication To effectively lead people and projects you must be able to understand the needs and goals of the business and convey this information to others through simple and straightforward instruction. Well-developed communication skills will ensure you’re able to translate the most accurate information to the right people at the right time. Great communicators actively listen retain information well and pass it on efficiently to others. Communication skills examples: Active listening Collaboration Interpersonal communication Negotiation Persuasion Public speaking Verbal communication Written communication Interviewing Building relationships 5. Organization As a manager you’ll have to balance many tasks at the same time. Often this means overseeing multiple project timelines deadlines and calendar events such as meetings conferences and presentations. Excellent organizational skills will help you stay on top of your work reduce stress prevent you and your team from missing critical dates and ensure you can find information when you need it most. Staying organized will improve your workflow and ensure you’re able to complete tasks as efficiently as possible. It will also set a great example for any employees who may report to you. Organizational skills examples: Goal setting Administrative skills Project management Time management Deadline management Event coordination Recordkeeping Scheduling

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 29 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism iii. How Managerial Skills are Interrelated and blend using Diplomacy These are the skills an ideal manager must-have. Looking close enough we will find the skill are inter-related and irreplaceable. A manager is appointed for making a decision and to solve problem. No more no less. So to make the decision s/he needs to identify a situation which could be opportunities or threat. Conceptual knowledge is essential for this as it helps the manager has a complete understanding of the organization. A manager cannot decide without diagnosing and analyzing. Diagnosing and analyzing the situation is required to tackle a situation and for this needs information and resources. Collecting Information and gathering resources requires communication with colleagues at work and peoples outsides the organization. Persuading leading motivating is required and get the best out of them. A manager cannot just give decisions and sit in this office he needs to have technical skills is for performing the task which was set by the decision. A good manager has all these skills but it is not necessarily true that all of them are equally important or required for the assigned job or post of a manager. The relative importance of these skills of a manager depends on the manager rank of his in the organizational hierarchy. Management skills are important for many reasons. They position you to act as an effective leader and problem-solver in so many situations. Work on honing these skills and watch how they can impact your job performance and opportunities. iv. Tips For Succeeding In A Manager Role Taking on a management position can be a rewarding opportunity to meaningfully contribute to an organization take on new responsibilities and grow your professional career. Whether you’re applying for your first management role or you’ve been in a leadership position for a while growing your skills will help you achieve success. Here are three things you can do to develop the managerial skills listed above to ensure you’re ready for the challenges of a new role. 1. Seek opportunities to lead. Like all professional abilities managerial skills take practice. To help prepare yourself look for opportunities to lead within your current position. For example volunteer to manage projects and lead meetings. This can help you identify and improve your areas of opportunity. For example the experience of leading a project may help you recognize you lack experience in team goal setting. Once you’ve highlighted potential weaknesses you can spend time working on them. Additionally taking small leadership opportunities in your current job will help you demonstrate your abilities to your supervisor and other senior personnel who may be seeking managerial candidates. 2. Find a role model. Look for great leaders both inside and outside your organization and take time to observe how they interact with others. Pay close attention to the character traits they exhibit how

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 30 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism they behave under pressure and what they do when faced with complex challenges. Consider asking another leader to mentor you to help nurture your managerial talents. While it takes time and experience to become a successful manager an accomplished leader’s advice can help you understand the obstacles and circumstances you may face leading a team. 3. Ask for feedback. While self-evaluation is important asking for feedback from others can help you identify areas to improve that you may have otherwise missed. Next time you have an employee evaluation ask your supervisor for feedback on your organization planning and strategy communication and people management skills. Once you know your strengths and weaknesses in these areas you can continue developing your best attributes and work on areas of improvement. This will help ensure you’re well prepared for the demands of a leadership role. VIII. THE MITIGATION OF ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT CHALLENGES AND ISSUES IN ORGANISATIONS THROUGH DIPLOMACY. The questions we are asking in this paper is: How does diplomacy helps to mitigate administration and management issues and challenges in organisation To proffer a well- rounded response necessitate a deep excursion into the people skills that are used as tools and skills of diplomacy. We understand that the primary abilities that fall within the framework of diplomatic skills set include empathy and compassion emotional intelligence conflict resolution and tact. These skills help individual managers workers and public officials to: ✓ Know how to deal with people without unnecessary “bad blood” and ill-feelings. ✓ Find the right balance between your personal needs and group needs. ✓ Learn how to handle difficulties and settling disputes effectively. ✓ Successfully navigating and channeling request appropriately without hurting others. ✓ Effective handling of disagreement and challenging work situations. A. The Key Diplomatic Skills Require for Leaders and Managers To Resolve Issues And Challenges What are the prerequisites for successful use of diplomacy in organisation and daily life especially with regards to handling issues and challenges in Administration and Management The following diplomatic skills are available to managers and leaders for use to effectively handle any issues and challenges that may arise in the workplace. i. Attentive Listening: This is active listening which involves listening with all senses. It is the ability to focus completely on a speaker understand their message comprehend the information and respond thoughtfully. You need to be able to listen to not just what is being said but also how it is being said to understand and react appropriately to others. Great listening doesn’t come easily. It’s hard work. Be motivated to listen but if you must speak ask questions for clarity on what’s been said or not said.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 31 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism ii. Emotional Intelligence: Emotional intelligence otherwise known as emotional quotient or EQ is the ability to understand use and manage your own emotions in positive ways to relieve stress communicate effectively empathize with others overcome challenges and defuse conflict. People with higher emotional intelligence can usually use tact and diplomacy more naturally in communication. Emotional intelligence is a measure of how well we understand our own emotions and the emotions of others. The ability to express and control emotions is essential but so is the ability to understand interpret and respond to the emotions of others. This is essential in a good diplomatic relationship. iii. Showing Empathy and Compassion: As an extension to emotional intelligence empathy is your ability to see the world from another person’s perspective. Diplomacy often requires that you have empathy and compassion for the feelings and perspective of other people. Empathetic people have the ability to imagine what it would be like to walk in anothers shoes. Someone who is diplomatic tends to avoid impulsive responses driven by selfish motives. Instead a diplomatic person tries to approach discussions negotiations and disagreements with intent to understand the other partys point of view. iv. Rapport: Rapport is a close and harmonious relationship in which the people or groups concerned understand each others feelings or ideas and communicate well. It is the ability to relate to others in a way that creates a level of trust and understanding. It is a connection or relationship with someone else. It can be considered as a state of harmonious understanding with another individual or group. It is closely linked to tact and diplomacy as well as emotional intelligence and good manners. It is important to build rapport with your client/colleague as it gets their unconscious mind to accept and begin to process your suggestions. They are made to feel comfortable and relaxed-open to suggestions. v. Politeness: Politeness is the practical application of good manners or etiquette so as not to offend others. Wikipedia. This is a behaviour that is respectful and considerate of other people. It is important to be polite because it puts other people at ease and helps build strong relationships. Politeness also helps decrease the social distance between two people making it easier to communicate. Being polite and courteous respecting other people’s view-point and cultural differences is is especially important when communicating with customers and colleagues and in many interpersonal relationships. vi. Negotiation: By definition diplomacy is the point of contact between two or more sovereign states. It is therefore the only branch of public power that even as a last resort may never resort to duress its action is through dialogue otherwise known as negotiation. The art of managing a complex negotiation process is the ultimate skill in the fields of diplomacy and international relations. Diplomatic Negotiations involves seeking familiarity not friendship discuss differences in advance and assign roles and responsibilities. PON Staff 2021

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 32 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism vii. Open mindedness: Facilitate effective communication by maintaining an "open mind." Avoid passing judgment on or expressing criticism of communicated messages. You do not have to agree entirely with the other person’s thoughts and opinions but it is important that you respect them. Demonstrate empathy by trying to understand the situation from the other person’s perspective. viii. Consideration Tact: Tact is basic sensitivity toward others in communication. A person who is "tactless" acts or speaks freely without regard for the feelings of others. In contrast a tactful person considers the environment the people nearby and the potential group ramifications of a message. By considering these factors before speaking a diplomatic person avoids making insensitive statements that easily offend others attract ire and cause workplace tension. ix. Compromise: This is an an agreement or settlement of a dispute that is reached by each side making concessions. Effective communication is a necessary component of compromise. When a problem exists both individuals must work collaboratively to formulate a list of potential solutions as well as trade-offs that they will agree to. It is to come to agreement by mutual concession. Compromise has been the main way of solving conflict among individuals groups and countries since the beginning of humanity it is the main tool of diplomacy. At the core of compromise there is empathy if not sympathy for others. By being ready to compromise we understand the views needs and emotions of others and we try to accommodate them by either adjusting our approach or sometimes by giving up on our claims partially. The importance of compromise in diplomacy could be realised if we think of all possible conflicts that could have happened and those that actually happened in reality. x. Assertiveness: This is the quality of being self-assured and confident without being aggressive. Assertiveness can help you express yourself effectively and stand up for your point of view while also respecting the rights and beliefs of others. Being assertive can also help boost your self-esteem and earn others respect. Let’s note that the reason for using tact and diplomacy is very often to persuade or influence others to think or behave in a certain way. Assertiveness is fundamental to this process and a skill that many people lack. xi. Reflection: Validate the thoughts and feelings of the person speaking by reflecting back what he has communicated. This can be accomplished by summarizing the main idea of the speaker’s message. For example "You feel like you have tried several options and are not sure about what step to take next." This communication skill helps the speaker feel like she is being understood and gives her the opportunity to clarify and add more detail if necessary. xii. Conflict Resolution: A primary benefit of diplomatic skills is that you avoid conflict by navigating safely through it when it comes up. Diplomatic people figure out how to protect the

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 33 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism feelings of another person in a conflict while still asserting their perspective. Using a "cushion" in conflict communication helps in conflict resolution according to Dale Carnegie Training. A cushion is language conveying respect for the other persons opinions before stating your own. You might say for instance "I really understand where youre coming from Bob. However here is why I think this situation is unique and requires a different approach. B. THE DIPLOMATIC FUNCTIONS IN ORGANIZATIONS: If leaders and managers in organisation are desirous of using diplomacy to resolve issues and challenges in administration and management then it is critical to note the key areas of diplomatic functions that are relevant and useful. These include: • Representation • Communication • Negotiation • Advocacy • Mediation • Observation of situations • Reporting and feedback systems • Public relations and • International relations. In all interactions and relationships with key actors in both public and private organisation managers/leaders are at liberty to use any of the above or combination thereof to tackle the problem as necessary. C. HOW TO USE DIPLOMACY TO MITIGATE ISSUES AND CHALLENGES IN ORGANISATION We can infer from the above that diplomatic leadership involves negotiating representing interests and policies speaking publicly and resolving conflicts. Diplomacy – the professional activities or skills of managing international relations – usually involves dealing with others without causing bad feelings. Diplomatic leadership requires a person to be a good manager resilient negotiator and a trusted adviser. It enables her to raise awareness and assist constituents. Using diplomatic skills to resolves issues and challenges in administration and management of organisation remain one of the best options to create a workplace that is devoid of rancour acrimony and backstabbing that impart negatively on productivity. How do we mitigate issues and challenges using diplomacy tools Diplomatic managers and leaders must be astute and wise in deploying these tools to tackle any of the already discussed issues and challenges in administration and management. Since people are the most important asset in organisation diplomatic skills is the needed tool to get organisation running with minimal disruption. According to Tara Duggan 2020 to do these effectively the following are used proficiently when handling any issues and challenges:

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 34 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism a Work on Building Relationships When confronting issues and challenges diplomacy allows a leader to build productive relationships. People who build these relationships accept criticism and step in to solve problems without being asked. They pay attention to details and ask probing questions but also know when to show restraint. A good diplomatic leader knows when to show appreciation and make other people feel good about themselves. Effective leaders also apologize when necessary to preserve these relationships. b Use Negotiation in Agreements Issues and challenges are common in organisation and managers responsibilities is to modulate them for peace and harmony. Hence negotiation might be a great tool to deploy when team or groups are involved. Negotiation skills help a diplomatic leader achieve her goals. Negotiation the process between two disagreeing parties trying to seek a solution involves making deals solving problems managing conflict and preserving relationships. During the bargaining process the lack of dependence on others or a strong best alternative to a negotiated agreement represents power. Some positions grant power due to the authority or control they exert. In other cases that means a leader exudes power even if it does not necessarily seem granted to her. c Safeguarding Integrity is Key Diplomatic leaders act in accordance with their own core values and that of the organization they represent no matter the importance of issues or challenges at hand. So adherence to standards of business conduct and maintenance of ethical standards must not be compromised. This expectation demands prudence care and being virtuous. Balance between the benefit of the few and the majority can be difficult to determine or decide. Diplomatic leadership involves setting a good example and showing others what it means to have integrity and honesty in all dealings. d Gaining Advantage Without Force: A leader commands subordinates who are an organization’s most important assets. However she does so without force or coercion. When employees become engaged productive and satisfied they tend to work harder to achieve business goals. Leaders have a tremendous impact on whether or not employees get engaged. To gain an advantage a diplomatic leader provides interesting work for her employees that they take pride in feel in control of and for which they feel respected. Diplomatic leaders create opportunities for dialogue with others and inspire subordinates by creating a culture steeped in observance of professional etiquette. Furthermore when a diplomatic leader/manager speaks it is essential to mind your language. Language mining is a diplomatic tool – communication – that leader/manager can use to handle issues and challenges that arise in their daily operations. The London School group share about five areas to be polite and diplomatic when speaking for our consideration:

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 35 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism e Listen And Be Understanding When we show other people that we are listening to them and that we understand them they will be more willing to listen and accept our opinion. Dont just say "I disagree" show them that you are listening and that you understand them before you explain your opinion. You can do this by using statements like: Yes but...I see what you mean but...I agree up to a point but…etc. f Avoid negative words - instead use positive words in a negative form People react to positive sounding words even if they are used with a negative auxiliary. Dont say: I think thats a bad idea. Say: I dont think thats such a good idea. g Use the magic word if necessary: Sorry This word can be used in many ways: to interrupt to apologise to show you dont understand to disagree. It diffuses tension and it allows you to start a statement more comfortably. Sorry but can I just say something here…..Sorry but I dont really agree… Sorry but I think thats out of the question….etc. h Use little words to soften your statements Break down negative sentences with some softeners. Dont say: I dont like it. Say: I dont really like it Im afraid. Dont say: Can I say something Say: Can I just say something here Dont say: I didnt catch that. Say: Sorry I didnt quite catch that. i Avoid finger pointing statements with the word you This is aggressive and too direct. Try to avoid saying you and put the focus on I or we. Dont say: You dont understand me. Say: Perhaps Im not making myself clear. Dont say:You didnt explain this point. Say: I didnt understand this point. Dont say: You need to give us a better price. Say: Were looking for a better price. j Provide support and creative solutions. When approaching challenging situations tasks or projects find ways to offer support to your coworkers. Show that youre open to collaboration and solving problems that achieve objectives. k Help mediate work conflicts. Use your diplomatic skills to help others solve conflicts. For instance help others listen to all sides of a situation and work together to find a solution that is beneficial for everyone. This not only demonstrates your diplomatic capabilities but it also showcases your ability to lead a team to work together to solve a problem. D. HOW TO DEVELOP ADMINISTRATIVE SKILLS THROUGH DIPLOMACY Developing your administrative skills through the acquisition of diplomatic skills can help have a stronger work ethic by completing tasks in a punctual and quality manner while working well with others. Bakare 2021. Furthermore Robert Half 2018 identified six 6 practical advice in developing Administrative and Management Skills through Diplomacy. The following might be considered when working on your administrative skills:

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 36 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism i. Set personal career goals Setting specific measurable goals to increase some or all of the above administrative skills can help you improve over time. It can help to meet with trusted friends colleagues or mentors to identify areas of improvement to determine which skills you should prioritize. ii. Get organized Organization is an important part of being a good administrator. Take time to make a clean organized workspace for yourself that can help you prioritize tasks manage your time well and respond quickly to others who need the information you have. iii. Mimic other strong administration skills If you have a colleague or manager that has strong administrative skills that you find effective try adopting their practices in your own work. For example if you find that their style of note-taking is especially helpful you might also practice taking notes in this way. iv. Pursue Training and Development Investigate your companys internal training offerings if it has any. Ask if your employer would provide tuition reimbursement for an outside development course conference or seminar. Consider the skills you want to develop and whether you can demonstrate how a particular training program will improve your administrative skills on-the-job performance or contributions to the firm. v. Join Industry Associations or Professional Associations Become active in organizations like the International Association of Administrative Professionals. Participate in committees attend seminars and other educational events and talk with your fellow administrative professionals at meetings. Networking tips can prove valuable to help you get out there and connect. Lisa Tynan 2021 identified the following tips for a successful networking: • Identify what networking style works best for you • Use social media effectively • Practice networking in your workplace • Offer to help • Be consistent • Follow up vi. Choose a Mentor Find someone with strengths in the area you wish to improve and ask if he or she will assist you. If your employer doesnt have an in-house mentoring program look for individuals inside or outside the organization whose administrative skills you admire. vii. Take on new Challenges If you feel stagnant in your current role ask your manager about ways you can assume more challenging assignments. Most supervisors will welcome initiative from staff clearly it will add value to the team. Showing motivation and ambition also may help you stand out as a candidate for promotion.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 37 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism viii. Help a Nonprofit Cause If you cant do more at your company consider possibilities outside the office such as through charitable organizations. These groups may be receptive to your interest in supporting them and you might find mentors who can help you expand your abilities and knowledge. By volunteering on committees or for leadership roles you can develop administrative skills that not only benefit the organization but also are applicable to your paid job. ix. Participate in Diverse Projects Listen up during meetings for colleagues requesting assistance with special initiatives. This may be your opportunity to expand your skill set by getting involved in other areas of the department or company. Also offer to help if your boss or colleagues seem overloaded with projects. E. MITIGATING OTHER CHALLENGES USING DIPLOMATIC SKILLS As an administrator manager or even employee you are bound to face some common issues and challenges related to productivity and communication. Knowing how to recognize these challenges and address them helps increase your confidence and ability to lead a team. Bakare 2021. According to Indeed Editorial Team 2021 the following are some of the most common issues and challenges managers face and where diplomatic skills can be applied to create rapport harmony and an enabling work relationship that boost productivity: 1. Decreased performance levels 2. Being understaffed 3. Lack of communication 4. Poor teamwork 5. Pressure to perform 6. Absence of structure 7. Time management 8. Inadequate support 9. Skepticism 10. Difficult employees 11. Transition from coworker to manager 12. Weak workplace culture 1. Decreased Performance Levels: Employees may experience periods of time where they are not as productive as usual. A decrease in productivity can sometimes affect other team members and overall goals making it important to help employees feel motivated. Managers who consistently review processes and procedures within the company can increase efficiency. Perform a workflow analysis to review your current systems and restructure weak areas. Another way to address this challenge is by asking questions and

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 38 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism offering solutions to their problems. One-on-one meetings provide a great opportunity for managers to reestablish work hours and expectations regarding work productivity. 2. Being Understaffed Managers must recognize when its time to hire another team member to help fulfill responsibilities within their department. Because the hiring process is time-consuming its helpful to get assistance from other managers and human resources professionals when pursuing a new candidate. If needed ask for help when creating a job description interviewing applicants and selecting the right person for the desired role. Consider having applicants complete a sample work test to help you determine the best fit for your team. 3. Lack of Communication Another challenge managers face when overseeing teams is ensuring effective communication. Because every team member has a different personality there is a chance for miscommunication from time to time. Increase the frequency of communication to ensure employees know exactly what you expect of them and when you need them to complete it. Redefine standards that reinforce your teams goals and purposes. Consider implementing a messaging platform for the workplace that allows everyone to communicate quickly. Let them know if you prefer one form of contact over another. 4. Poor Teamwork Sometimes employees may lose focus on collaboration when they spend a lot of time completing individual tasks. To re-establish teamwork managers should revisit the purpose of a project. Managers who take the time to acknowledge their teams efforts and clarify the purpose of their work commonly see increased levels of motivation. Consider dividing your team members into partners so they have a chance to work with someone for a specific project. Team-building exercises are another great way to help everyone learn how to work better together. Base the content of your exercises around the challenges your team faces. For example if they need to get to know each other better focus on relationship building. 5. Pressure to Perform Some managers especially new managers to feel like they are under pressure to achieve greatness from the very start of their role. If you frequently feel stressed about your leadership position take time to revisit the reasons why you were hired for the job. Recognize that leaders learn from experience and mistakes. While planning helps you will likely face unexpected situations. The way that you choose to resolve conflicts and react to challenges reflects your ability to lead. 6. Absence of Structure A common challenge that managers face in the workplace is the absence of structure especially when overseeing a new team. Depending on the work environment some teams may need to be supervised more closely than others in order to maintain productivity levels. Take time to develop an organizational structure that helps employees know what you expect of them. In addition show your team respect to encourage loyalty.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 39 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism 7. Time Management Because managers are responsible for overseeing the members of their team and communicating with other department heads they typically struggle with balancing their own tasks. One way to prioritize your own work responsibilities is by scheduling time throughout the day to do specific work. Let your team know the times youll be available to them and the times you plan to focus on your work. Regularly update your calendar and share it with team members so they know when they can reach you. 8. Inadequate Support Managers sometimes need approval from the executive team of a company or the business owner before moving ahead with a project. When the decision-making process takes longer than expected it may slow down their teams progress overall. The most important thing to do in this situation is to be honest with your team members. Let them know that you are waiting for information from the executive team and if possible allow them to work on other projects. Try to arrange for a one-on-one with the decision-maker to expedite progress. 9. Skepticism Teams often question the transparency of management when they feel distanced from their supervisors especially if certain employees feel like they are doing more work than others. When people feel they are not part of the plan their level of trust becomes compromised. Clear communication and honest interactions help resolve skepticism in most instances because it builds trust between an employee and manager. When you delegate tasks explain why you assigned it and how it contributes to the overall goal. 10. Difficult Employees Sometimes managers oversee employees who cause tension in the workplace. Knowing how to properly address any issues before they become major problems is one common challenge managers face. To address specific concerns request feedback from your team members to learn about any issues they may have with completing work or communicating with team members. Implement any feasible suggestions to show youre listening to your team. Take time to listen to their concerns and find out what you can about the situation. If youre unsure of what to do next consider enlisting the support of an HR professional in your company. Their training supports conflict resolution and other aspects of employee relations. 11. Transition from Coworker to Manager People who get promoted at work often find themselves managing old coworkers. This situation may feel awkward at first but with time and the right leadership it may become less of an issue. Ensure team members that youre there to support their efforts and ensure they have everything they need to accomplish their goals. It may help to have a meeting shortly after the transition where you address the change in roles and allow your team members to ask any questions. 12. Weak Workplace Culture When teams feel like theyre not connected with the rest of the workplace they could experience a decrease in motivation. Teams that feel they are part of a larger group experience more confidence and trust. One way to promote a strong work culture is by planning lunch outings and rewarding employees who exceed expectations.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 40 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism IX. CONCLUSION Management is about directing improving innovating in order to reach the organization’s goal of profit-maximizing. Administration is about analyzing reports correcting mistakes and solving problems in order to reach the same goal. A company an organization an institution or a nation needs both. It must not only keep things going it must also make things go: a distinction which represents a succinct yet valid definition of the difference between administration and management”. Effective administration and management are critical to ensuring that the public sector has the expertise needed to address the most pressing civic problems facing society. This includes a wide range of actors including federal state and local career civil servants political appointees contractors academics and professional associations and good government organizations. This is a broad field and a deep bench for the nation to draw upon to address the challenges and issues in administration and management successfully using the array of diplomatic skills discussed in the body of this paper. The stakeholders must decide to work together and make progress for the overall benefit of the society. Our duty as an institute is to inspire action by providing forum such as this where state and non-state actors can rob mind together to come up with workable solutions to arrest the malaise of spate of insecurity and economic doldrums the country is battling presently. In the body of this paper we have established that diplomacy is central to efficient and effective mitigation of management and administrative challenges. Diplomatic skills make a manager or employee to be shoulder above their peers. Those who possess diplomatic skills turns in superior performance and it also accelerate career growth and makes one more attractive during talent hunt or promotion in the organisation. Effective use of diplomatic skills by individual in organisations and nations administrative system regularly will entrench justice bonding and satisfaction which yields sustainable development and growth in all aspect of human and organisational endeavours. A robust and sustainable diplomacy is about maintaining positive relationship creating harmony and engendering goodwill and mutual trust. When alloyed with a strong administrative system then the trajectory of the product is potential exponential growth for the benefit of the organisation and nations who combines both in the right proportion. Administrative professionals who acquired diplomatic skills play a key part in holding a team together and a lot of organizations would fall apart without them. Professionals who hold well- developed administrative skills help to ensure the organization runs efficiently and constitute a crucial factor in the management of projects and growth initiatives. In this age there is no such thing as a ‘typical’ administrative role. Organizations both private and public are always looking for administrative professionals who fit in specifically with their unique corporate goals and culture to help in mitigating administrative challenges.

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 41 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism References and Bibliography 1. Adeniran T. 1983. Introduction to international relations. Ibadan: Macmillan Publications Nigeria Ltd. 2. Alammar F. M. Pauleen D. J. 2015. Business Diplomacy in Practice: What Do the Experts Say A paper presented at the 29th Annual Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management At New Zealand Queenstown December 2015. Available online at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285971846_Business_Diplomacy_in_Practice_Wh at_Do_the_Experts_Say 3. Anna Mar May 11 2013. 21 Types of Management. Retrieved on 14/07/2021 from https://management.simplicable.com/management/new/21-types-of-management 4. Bakare Adebola R. June 12 2021. Developing Administrative Management Skills in Mitigating Their Challenges and Issues Through Diplomacy. CIPDM 2021 Training/Induction Ceremony Ilorin. 5. Boundless Business. Types of Management. Retrieved on 14/07/2021 from https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-business/chapter/types-of-management/ 6. CFI. 2021 Management Skills. Retrieved on 15/07/2021 from https://corporatefinanceinstitute.com/resources/careers/soft-skills/management-skills/ 7. Commonwealth Ombudsman Lessons for Public Administration Report No 11/2007. Retrieved on Sept 282018 from https://www.ombudsman.gov.au/__data/assets /pdf_file/0029/35597/Ten-principles-for-good-administration.pdf 8. CQ NET C. 6 behaviors that characterize politically skilled individuals in organizations and how to learn them. https://www.ckju.net/en/blog/6-behaviors-characterize-politically- skilled-individuals-organizations-how-learn-them/32148 9. Essays UK. November 2018. The Definition Of Diplomacy Politics Essay. Retrieved from https://www.ukessays.com/essays/politics/the-definition-of-diplomacy-politics- essay.phpvref1 10. Half R. 2018 June 22 Boost Your Administrative Skills with These 6 Steps. Available on line at https://www.roberthalf.com/blog/salaries-and-skills/i-want-to-update-my- administrative-skills-where-to-begin Accessed June 6 2021 11. Heady F. 1978. Comparative Administration: A Sojourners Outlook. Public Administration Review 384 358-365. doi:10.2307/975819 12. Henisz W. 2014. Corporate Diplomacy: Building Reputations and Relationships with External Stakeholders. Pennsylvania: Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania 13. https://www.bartleby.com/essay/The-Five-Key-Managerial-Skills-PKZ7YMW5UKD5 14. Indeed Career Guide 2021 February 8 Administrative Skills: Definition and Examples for Your Career. https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/career-development/administrative- skills 15. Indeed Editorial Team 2021 February 23. 12 Common Management Challenges and How to Overcome Them. https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/career-development/management- challenges

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CIPDM Training/Induction Ceremony Lecture| 42 | P a g e CIPDM……Mark of Professionalism 16. Indeed Editorial Team. June 9 2021. Management Skills: Definition and Examples. Retrieved on 15/07/2021 from https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/career- development/management-skills 17. Jean-Luc Meier 2016. Why Corporate Diplomacy is important for business. Available online at https://www.strategic-expansion.com/wordpress/2016/10/23/why-corporate-diplomacy-is- important-for-business/ 18. Longman Web Dictionary 19. Lugtu A. Jr. 2014 May 24 Issues And Challenges In Public Administration. Retrieved 09/07/2021 from https://www.slideshare.net/J2Gonzales/final-presentation-project-alugtu-jr 20. Marshall P. Dynamics of Diplomacy Diplomatic Academy of London. London: 1990 21. Mintzberg H. The Strategy Process Prentice Hall. New Jersey:1992 22. PON Staff July 5th 2021. Diplomatic Negotiations: The Surprising Benefits of Conflict and Teamwork at the Negotiation Table. Retrieved on 14/07/2021 from https://www.pon.harvard.edu/daily/international-negotiation-daily/international-negotiations- the-surprising-benefits-of-conflict-in-negotiating-teams/ 23. Prachi Juneja Management Administration. Retrieved on Sept 29 2018 from https://www.managementstudyguide.com/management_administration.htm 24. Rees D. Skills of Management Thomson Learning. London: 2001 25. Robert L. Katz. Skills of an Effective Administrator. Retrieved on Sept 28 2018 from https://hbr.org/1974/09/ skills-of-an-effective-administrator 26. Sambit. Problems of Public Administration: Sources Nature and Faces. https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/public-administration/problems-public- administration/problems-of-public-administration-sources-nature-and-faces/63449 Accessed 09/07/2021 27. Sarumi O. O. 2019. Creative and Innovative Management System in Leadership through Diplomacy Principles in the 21 st Century. CIPDM Induction Training Manual. 28. Sonia Kukreja 2020. Managerial Skills. https://www.managementstudyhq.com/managerial- skills.html Accessed July 15.2021 29. Tara Duggan. Sept 11 2020 What Is Diplomatic Leadership https://work.chron.com/resolve-dissension-workplace-17077.html 30. The London School Group. Five tips for Polite and Diplomatic Language. Retrieved on 15/07/2021 from https://www.londonschool.com/blog/5-tips-polite-and-diplomatic-language/ 31. Walyben. November 5 2020. Major Administrative Problems in Developing Countries. Available online at https://www.walyben.com/major-administrative-problems-in-developing- countries/ Accessed July 15 2021.

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