Fundamentals of Diplomacy and Roles of Public and Private Sectors Mgrs


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he Fundamentals of Diplomacy and the Roles of Public and Private Sectors Managers


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The Fundamentals of Diplomacy and the Roles of Public and Private Sectors Manager:

The Fundamentals of Diplomacy and the Roles of Public and Private Sectors Manager Oyewole O. Sarumi PhD, FCIPDM, FCIPMN, FNIMN E-mail: [email protected] Tel: +234 803 304 1421

Welcome :


Opening Quotes::

Opening Quotes: “The key to successful foreign policy in today’s world is networked diplomacy. Managing international crises requires mobilizing international networks of public and private actors,”  says  Anne-Marie Slaughter , an international lawyer and political scientist who is a former Princeton academic and ex-Director of Policy Planning at the US State Department under  U.S. Secretary of State   Hillary Clinton .

Learning Objectives:

Learning Objectives At the end of this session, participants will be able to: define diplomacy, management, manager and enterprise; list the types, forms and models of diplomacy; name the functions and roles of diplomacy; state the principles for diplomatic operations; distinguish old and new diplomacy; list the differences between public and private enterprises; explain the roles of public and private managers; discuss the place of diplomacy in the roles of public and private sectors managers; and apply the basic concepts of diplomacy and diplomatic relations in their workplace.


OPENING STORY The Story a wealthy man who engaged a contractor to build the finest house the builder had ever dreamed of building.  

Introduction :

Introduction Diplomacy is the means by which states through their formal and other representatives/actors articulate, co-ordinate and secure its interests using persuasion, lobbying and at times employing threats or actual force. During most of the twentieth century, two World Wars, the Cold War, the rivalry of two Super Powers, the ‘ideologization’ of International Affairs and military confrontation have made diplomacy a subsidiary instrument of power politics and ideology. The effective functioning of diplomacy today is influenced by a complicated combination of different interrelated factors. Notable factors include: political, economic and the revolution of telecommunication.


Introduction Political factors include; decline of the role of the national governments & other actors like private sector, religious groups, immigrants, media and civil society organisation and Non-governmental organisations (NGOs)


Introduction democratisation , the promotion of human rights, economic co-operation and sustainable development, facilitation of humanitarian actions, prevention of terrorism and criminal activity.


Introduction phenomenal growth of transnational economic interactions, huge expansion of international trade, the power of private companies and the electronic transfer of money, private entrepreneurs and fund managers are eclipsing central bankers and finance ministers.


Introduction The revolution in telecommunications: Of particular relevance to the diplomatic services are two technological developments – satellite broadcasting and digital networks including the Internet.


Introduction…Cont’d All these transformations bring new challenges for diplomacy on a global level: the maintenance of positive peace and comprehensive security. The paper seeks to consider the key fundamentals of diplomacy--- ---concepts, functions, principles, models and techniques among others and how they affect the roles of public and private sectors managers.. ..whilst examining the challenges that all of these can resolve for enterprises to run smoothly.. ..while improving effectiveness of leaders and organisational productivity.

Introduction .. Cont’d:

Introduction .. Cont’d However, at the close of this paper, I will discuss the ‘cliché that government would be better if it were only run by private-sector managers using standard business practices. From my personal experience and other experts who have been in both environments, I declare here that ‘it is not the same.’ My detailed justification for this can be a focus of another paper in the foreseeable future, but I will labour to mention a few at the end of this paper.

Diplomacy- some common perceptions :

Diplomacy- some common perceptions  Speak softly and carry a big stick (T. Roosevelt) Diplomacy is the art of telling people to go to hell in such a way that they ask for direction (Churchill) Diplomacy is the art of saying the nastiest thing in the nicest way (Nicolson) Diplomacy is to give one and take ten (Twain) Tail you lose, head I win To say nothing when speaking is the art of diplomacy Actions and words are separate ‘Diplomacy is lying for one’s country’.

Usage of the term- Diplomacy:

Usage of the term- Diplomacy   Many meanings In negative sense: deceiving, double standard, art of pleasing all, Related to Foreign policy and government stand, Branch of Civil servants, skill in the art of negotiation.

Why Study Diplomacy?:

Why Study Diplomacy? Co- existence of separate political units necessitates a certain degree of contact among them. Communication between the governments to ensure smooth international process. Instrument of foreign policy Use of soft power instead of all out chaos. Thus, diplomacy has become co-manager of all international relations.

Concept and Definition :

Concept and Definition  The word is derived from two Greek words, diplo and ma. ‘Diplo’ means fold into two and ‘ma’ means object A document for travel in public transportation, later it was used for official documents consisting agreement between states The person holding these documents were called diplomats


Definition Oxford dictionary: ‘the management of international relations by negotiation’. Sir Earnest Satow : ‘the application of intelligence and tact to the conduct of official relations between the government of independent states’ Melissen : ‘the mechanism of representation, communication and negotiation through which states and other international actors conduct their business’. de Magalhães : ‘Diplomacy is an instrument of foreign policy for the establishment and development of peaceful contacts between the government of different states through the use of intermediaries mutually recognized by respective parties’

Nature of Diplomacy:

Nature of Diplomacy Diplomacy is not Immoral Diplomacy is a means of International Relations Diplomacy is machinery for action Diplomacy acts through Settled Procedures Bilateral as well as Multilateral in Form Diplomacy handles all types of Matters Breakdown of Diplomacy always leads to Crisis Global Governance: The basic nature of Diplomacy has evolved post globalization Contribution of Non –state actors: privatization of Diplomacy Diplomacy operates both in times of Peace as well as War

Nature of Diplomacy … Cont’d:

Nature of Diplomacy … Cont’d Diplomacy works in an environment characterised both by Conflict and Cooperation Diplomacy always works for securing national interests of the nation it represents Diplomacy is backed by national power: Test of Success of Diplomacy Authority beyond the State: Regional co-operation and formation of Regional alliance Role of Economic status of A country on Diplomacy: In the levels of diplomatic activity, from the local through the domestic, national to the bilateral, regional and global.

Objectives of Diplomacy::

Objectives of Diplomacy: Diplomacy seeks to secure two types of primary objectives for the nation it represents. These   are: ( i ) Political Objectives, and (ii) Non-political Objectives.

(a) Political Objectives of Diplomacy::

(a) Political Objectives of Diplomacy: Diplomacy- …works to secure the goals of national interest as defined by the foreign policy. …works for increasing the influence of the state over other states. …uses persuasion, promises of rewards and other such means for this purpose. Through rational negotiations…. seeks to justify the objectives of the foreign policy of the nation. seeks to promote friendship and cooperation with other nations.

(b) Non-political Objectives of Diplomacy::

(b) Non-political Objectives of Diplomacy: The interdependence among nations is the most important and valuable fact of international living. Each nation depends upon others for economic and industrial links and trade. Diplomacy always: seeks to promote the economic, commercial and cultural links of the nation with other nations. depends upon peaceful means, persuasive methods for promoting the interests of the nation This is an important non-political objective of Diplomacy.

Means of Diplomacy:

Means of Diplomacy For securing its objectives, Diplomacy depends upon three major means: Persuasion, Compromise, and Threat of use of force. Diplomacy has to depend upon several tactics or techniques. The chances of the success of diplomacy are directly related to the ability of using appropriate means through appropriate tactics.

The Six Main Devices of Diplomacy:

The Six Main Devices of Diplomacy In the main diplomacy uses six technique, which have been defined by Hostile are: ( i ) Persuasion (ii) Rewards (iii) Promise of Reward and Concessions (iv) Threat of use of Force (v) Non-violent Punishment (vi) Use of Pressure A selection of a method or means is done on the basis of the time and circumstances of the situation. Any wrong decision in this respect can lead to a failure.

Feature of Modern Diplomacy:

Feature of Modern Diplomacy Age n d a A number of new issues; - Low Politics ( Economic, Social and Welfare ) - High Polit i cs ( Milit a r y I ssu e s and is s u e s of War and Peace )

Functions and Role of Diplomacy:

Functions and Role of Diplomacy In performing its tasks and securing its national objectives, Diplomacy has to undertake a number of functions. According to Palmer and Perkins, a Diplomat has five Functions: Representation Negotiations Reporting Protections of national Interest abroad Maintenance of International peace and promotion of peace and cooperation


Also, according to Hans J. Morgenthau; Diplomacy must: determine its objectives in the light of the power actually and potentially available for the pursuit of these objectives. assess the objectives of other nations and the power actually and potentially available for the pursuit of these objectives. determine to what extent these different objectives are compatible with each other. employ the means suited to the pursuit of its objectives.


To him a Diplomat fulfills three basic functions for his government: Symbolic, Legal and Political. Failure in any one of these tasks may jeopardize the success of foreign policy and with it the peace of the world. Through all these functions, diplomacy plays an important role in international relations.

Diplomacy Functions:

Representing State Interest Symbolic Representation Obtaining Information Promoting and Protecting the Interests of Nations P o l i c y m a king by Diplomats These Functions Focus on the Diplomatic crops headed by an Ambassador Diplomacy Functions

Summation of Functions of Diplomacy:

Diplomacy has existed since the beginning of the human race. The act of conducting negotiations between two persons, or two nations at a large scope is essential to the upkeep of international affairs. Among the many functions of diplomacy, some include preventing war and violence, and fortifying relations between two nations. Diplomacy is most importantly used to complete a specific agenda. Therefore without diplomacy, much of the world’s affairs would be abolished, international organizations would not exist, and above all the world would be at a constant state of war. It is for diplomacy that certain countries can exist in harmony. Summation of Functions of Diplomacy

Types of Diplomacy:

Types of Diplomacy What are the types of diplomacy? It could depend on: Organisational Practises [Traditional/Modern or New]

Types of Organisational Diplomacy:

Types of Organisational Diplomacy Peacekeeping Diplomacy International Organisation Diplomacy National Parliament Diplomacy Conference Diplomacy Ministerial Diplomacy Track 11 Diplomacy (Citizen Diplomacy) Village Square or Town Hall Diplomacy

Types of Institutional Diplomacy:

Types of Institutional Diplomacy 1. Politics of pacification 2. Gunboat diplomacy 3. Dollar diplomacy 4. Public diplomacy 5. People's diplomacy 6. Intermediary diplomacy 7. Economic diplomacy 8. Digital (electronic) diplomacy

Others types of Diplomacy:

Others types of Diplomacy Track 1: official diplomacy (state led) - Military: COM maps, military attaché to understand military views Soft Power: Joe Nye, “hearts and minds,” propaganda, “seduction better than coercion,” Hard Power: military – bombs and guns and other things that explode Public Diplomacy: diplomacy focused on engaging the polity; propaganda Coercive Diplomacy: diplomacy backed with hard power/military strength (i.e. – making a statement by parking a fleet off a coast)

Change in the Character of Diplomacy: From Old Diplomacy to New Diplomacy::

Change in the Character of Diplomacy: From Old Diplomacy to New Diplomacy: There are changes today in the character of diplomacy, hence the new form or type; From Old Diplomacy to New Diplomacy: Two categories Old/Traditional Modern/New

Shaping the Principles of Diplomacy:

Shaping the Principles of Diplomacy The four principles of diplomacy guiding personal career philosophy are:   optimism, a commitment to justice, truth in dealing, and realism tempered by a commitment to pluralism. – Marc Grossman, retired US Diplomat

Principles of Diplomacy …Cont’d:

Principles of Diplomacy …Cont’d Writing for the  Public Diplomacy Council , retired diplomat Donald M. Bishop highlighted four bottom-up principles for operational public diplomacy: public diplomacy, the long game, public affairs, and public relations).

Principles of Diplomacy …Cont’d:

Principles of Diplomacy …Cont’d Applying an aphoristic approach in 2004, Secretary of State Colin Powell described three principles of diplomacy:   power is a prerequisite, but inadequate for diplomacy; it is better to have more partners on your side than against you; and incomplete victories that give an opponent a way out are often the best solutions. (Remarks at the 2004 Annual Kennan Institute Dinner)

Principles of Diplomacy …Cont’d:

Principles of Diplomacy …Cont’d According to Paul Kreutzer [1998], the ten principles for diplomatic operations are:  National interest, Credibility, Clarity, Comprehensiveness, Understanding, Perceptiveness, Circumspection, Confidence-building, Decisiveness, and Perseverance.

Diplomatic Attributes:

Diplomatic Attributes The following eight attributes characterized the accomplished diplomat working at a range of policy levels:  a remover of obstacles; an achiever of objectives; an effective cross-cultural communicator; a reliable representative; a proactive learner; an illuminating analyst; a principled decision-maker; and a positive team-builder.

Traditional Diplomacy :

Traditional Diplomacy  Started after peace of Westphalia 1648 as NSS emerged Continued till end of 19 th  century mostly in Europe Declined due to development in communication technology, development of socio-economic and political institutions

Features of Traditional Diplomacy :

Features of Traditional Diplomacy  Was confined to Europe and to a few big European powers England, France, Austria-Hungary, Prussia, Spain. The countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America were mostly colonies and USA was following a policy of isolation. The traditional diplomacy did not include the small states as they were treated like pawn in a chess game. While, the major powers have a greater responsibility for ensuring world peace.


Diplomatic service was taken as a profession and specific training and standards were developed for diplomatic officials. The diplomats were regarded important for  world peace. It was secret. The public would not know about negotiations. settlement and moment of threats. The diplomats would conduct negotiations secretly with greater freedom and then convey the decision to their governments.

The New Diplomacy:

The New Diplomacy Started in the beginning of 20 th  century because : Traditional diplomacy was conducted when the states were ruled by monarchs/princes. The power was with the ruler and people had no say in international affairs. The ruler would pursue diplomatic relations for royal benefit and interests. By the end of 19 th  century, the popular governments gained strength in Europe and the people were interested and concerned in foreign affairs. 


The focus shifted from royal interest to people’s interest. Diplomacy became open and people were taken into confidence on various matters to get popular support The advancement in communication technologies (aero planes, telephone, telegraphs) reduced the role of diplomatic freedom and made them dependent on their foreign office for guidance. Diplomats become ‘Dignified Clerks’

Features of New Diplomacy:

Features of New Diplomacy Features of New Diplomacy include:  Greater Openness Multilateral Diplomacy Personal or Summit Diplomacy

Features of New Diplomacy :

Features of New Diplomacy  1. Greater Openness No more secret treaties, pacts, negotiations because it gives rise to suspicion and fear of conflict Foreign policy and negotiations is open Supported by President Wilson of US The League of Nations and UN Charter also supported this Every treaty and international agreement must be registered with UN secretariat and will be published

Features of New Diplomacy…. Cont’d:

Features of New Diplomacy…. Cont’d 2. Multilateral Diplomacy Besides bilateral agreements, multi-lateral diplomacy is introduced Peace of Westphalia (1648) was also multilateral. Due to advancement of technology and growing international interaction, problems have assumed international character Thus different states conduct multilateral negotiations and diplomatic conferences to deal with issues of mutual interests such as regional peace, trade, environment, education etc. The UN also help in arranging multilateral negotiations through conferences and seminars

Features of New Diplomacy…. Cont’d:

Features of New Diplomacy…. Cont’d 3. Personal or Summit Diplomacy Coined by Churchill, British PM after WWII The foreign ministers, the heads of states or heads of governments directly take part in negotiations Even during WWII, Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin and others leaders would meet on various occasions

Features of New Diplomacy…. Cont’d:

Features of New Diplomacy…. Cont’d Summit Diplomacy cont’d   Very common at present OIC meetings, ECOWAS meetings, SADC, ASEAN, EU, Arab League, Pak-India PM meetings etc. The recent meeting of PMB, Chad, Cameroon and Niger Presidents The heads will directly talk on phone and talk major decisions on the spot and thus saves time.

Summit Diplomacy cont’d:

Summit Diplomacy cont’d Summit diplomacy shall be conducted after the diplomacy at lower level reaches a settlement. The heads could then meet to guarantee their commitment for the settlement. And to give good news to public.

Summit Diplomacy cont’d:

Summit Diplomacy cont’d Advantage of Summit Diplomacy Dramatic breakthroughs or major decisions can be taken by the leaders (more freedom to make decision) It may saves time than normal channel of diplomacy Mutual confidences/friendships may develop among leaders and lessening of tension e.g. PM of India and Pakistan and exchange of gifts for families

Drawback of Summit Diplomacy:

Drawback of Summit Diplomacy If the talks between diplomats fail, people would not care much. However, situation is more embarrassing if summit diplomacy fails- creates frustration among people. The real function of heads is to formulate policies and not to negotiate which is the domain of diplomats. Also, the heads are not technical and professional and thus may not successfully negotiate as compared to diplomats who are specialist and professional trained for the purpose.

New Diplomacy and Distinction with Old Diplomacy::

New Diplomacy and Distinction with Old Diplomacy: New Diplomacy has the following salient features which have been totally different from the features of Old Diplomacy. ( i ) New Diplomacy is Global, Old Diplomacy was mainly European (ii) New Diplomacy is mostly Multilateral, whereas Old Diplomacy was mostly Bilateral: (iii) New Diplomacy is less formal than Old Diplomacy: (iv) New Diplomacy is mostly open and Old Diplomacy was mostly secret:  (v) Democratic Nature of New Diplomacy versus Aristocratic nature of Old Diplomacy: (vi) New Diplomacy depends more on Propaganda than Old Diplomacy: (vii) Under New Diplomacy, the role of a Diplomat has suffered a Decline:


NOTE: Both traditional and new diplomacy have merits and demerits We can avoid the weakness of each of them and combining their positive aspects Summit diplomacy shall not be conducted at the initial level The task of negotiations be given to diplomatic officials who are trained for this purpose and will use all types of techniques such as bargaining, give and take, rewards and punishment etc. These diplomatic talks shall be kept secret as it may include harsh and unpleasant moments and discussions Once agreement is reached, then summit diplomacy shall be involved The final agreement or settlement shall be made open and public and necessary approval is granted through summit diplomacy for its observance and compliance

Secret Diplomacy and Open Diplomacy::

Secret Diplomacy and Open Diplomacy: ( i ) What is Secret Diplomacy? The term Secret Diplomacy is used to designate the diplomatic practice of conducting secret negotiations and making secret pacts, decisions, alliances and treaties. In Secret Diplomacy no attempt is made to take the people into confidence, and little information about diplomatic activity is provided to the public. Secrecy is considered vital for the success of diplomacy.


(ii) What is Open Diplomacy? Open Diplomacy is the opposite of Secret Diplomacy. Today, people have the right and duty to know and to participate in foreign policy decision-making. diplomacy must take into account popular wishes and public opinion. It is expected to inform the public about the nature and progress of all diplomatic negotiations as well as about the final agreement or disagreement resulting from such negotiations.

Arguments in favour of Open Diplomacy or Arguments against Secret Diplomacy::

Arguments in favour of Open Diplomacy or Arguments against Secret Diplomacy: It is the natural right of the people to know everything about the affairs of their government. It is the right of the people to keep the government responsible for its acts. It is the duty of the people to keep Diplomacy under check and prevent it from leading the nation into an environment of tensions, strains and war. Open Diplomacy is the best way of involving the people in the process of securing national interests and making them politically conscious. Secret Diplomacy leads to deceit, double dealings, and irresponsibility on the part of diplomats. There exists no justification for making secret treaties and alliances because every such instrument has a direct bearing upon the future of the people of the state.

Arguments against Open Diplomacy or Arguments in favour of Secret Diplomacy::

Arguments against Open Diplomacy or Arguments in favour of Secret Diplomacy: Secrecy in the interest of nation is an absolutely necessary condition for the success of diplomacy. Secret negotiations help the diplomats to be free and frank in expressing their views. Open Diplomacy can be misleading in practice, because the need for securing public sympathy for an essential state act can make the diplomats practise window- dressing and false propaganda. General public has neither the ability nor the time to participate constructively in diplomatic debate that may emerge as a result of public access to all information regarding diplomatic negotiations.

Use of both Secret and Open Diplomacy::

Use of both Secret and Open Diplomacy: There are arguments both for and against Open Diplomacy. Open Diplomacy is democratic and hence can be helpful in securing international peace. it can lead to unwanted and harmful popular decisions and reduce efficiency. Secret Diplomacy can be more active and efficient. It appears to be undemocratic in this age of democracy as it can lead to certain unpopular and aristocratic or elitist negotiations and decisions. The best way, therefore, can be the middle way— Open Diplomacy in respect of the facts of treaties, alliances and agreements which a nation makes with other nations and Secret Diplomacy in respect of diplomatic negotiations.


The ideal is to let the public know what is considered good for the protection and promotion of national interest. Sharing of all details and negotiations can have an harmful effect on relations with other nations and can hinder the process of attainment of national goals. The guiding principle in determining whether a particular diplomatic negotiation is to be kept secret or made public is: The considerations for NATIONAL INTEREST. If national interest demands secrecy, it must be maintained otherwise it is always better to make things public.

Comparison of Old and New diplomacy:

Comparison of Old and New diplomacy Old Diplomacy New Diplomacy Limited to European countries and politics Extends to all countries of the world Included only few major European powers Include all countries small or big The major powers were responsible for world peace All states are responsible for world peace Diplomats belong to aristocratic class having similar status and education. Diplomats belong to all section of society (civil servants appointed through tests) Diplomacy was secret Diplomacy is open Diplomats enjoyed more freedom in negotiation Diplomats are dignified clerks and work under continuous instruction and guidance from foreign office

Prerequisites for Successful Tact and Diplomacy:

Prerequisites for Successful Tact and Diplomacy As well as a level of common sense, good judgement and practice in various situations, the effective use of tact and diplomacy relies on some other key skills, namely: Attentive Listening  Emotional Intelligence Showing Empathy  Assertiveness Rapport  Politeness

The Rules of Effective Diplomacy:

The Rules of Effective Diplomacy Be realistic in negotiation and making commitment (don’t demand unrealistic and don’t commit unrealistic) Understand the importance of language and words and their implications (use clear language and words, avoid double sense words) Seek common ground and identical interests (conflicting demands be discussed at the end) Be flexible (compromise and adjustments) Listen carefully and understand the other side Be patient in listening and acting Leave avenues of retreat open and don’t push yourself to closed end Write whatever is decided or committed 67

Options for Conducting Diplomacy:

Options for Conducting Diplomacy Below are the options available for conducting diplomacy. Direct versus indirect negotiation (through some third party or through press statements, letters or spokes person, envoy etc. Taliban when not recognized) High-level versus low-level (depend upon issue) Using threat versus rewards to gain agreement (awarding general amnesty vs. threat of war and punishment to Taliban, carrot and stick policy with Pak, N. Korea, Communists) Being precise versus being intentionally vague (like politicians) Communicating by word versus by deed (e.g. US insistence on Pakistan to show and do more on terrorism than words, voting against in UN) Maximizing or minimizing a dispute (whether talks, propaganda, adopting rigid or flexible attitude e.g. talks with Taliban, Kashmir) 68

Types of Diplomatic Missions:

Embassy A diplomatic mission located in the capital city of another country which generally offer a full range of services , including consular services. High Commission An embassy of a Commonwealth country located in another Commonwealth country. Permanent Mission A diplomatic mission to a major international organization. Consulate General A diplomatic mission located in a major city , other than the capital city, which provides a full range of services, including consular services. Consulate A diplomatic mission that is similar to a consulate genera l, but which does not provide a full range of services. Consulate Headed by Honorary Consul A diplomatic mission headed by an Honorary Consul which provides only a limited range of services. Types of Diplomatic Missions

Diplomatic Immunities:

Diplomatic Immunities Diplomats are given certain privileges and immunities. They are: The premises of diplomatic missions, offices, house, vehicle is immune from police search The diplomat can not be arrested or detained for any civil or criminal violation by the receiving state e.g. When Raymond Davis was arrested in Lahore for killing two civilians, he claimed to be a diplomat The diplomat can not be sue by receiving state in any court of law. Only his home country can sue him/her. Immunity from taxation under municipal law, income tax, custom duty on goods imported for office and personal use.

Diplomatic Immunities:

Diplomatic Immunities Can use his country flag on his office, car and residence Can move freely in the receiving country subject to security threats and traffic rules. The immunities available to diplomats can be waived by sending state through an expressed statements if involved in an act The receiving state can also request the sending state to waive the immunities because of some serious violation of law.

Termination of diplomatic missions:

Termination of diplomatic missions Diplomatic missions are terminated because of: Expiry of the duration of the diplomatic mission Recall notice by the sending state Declaring persona non-grata by the receiving state Change or death of the head of sending state Declaration of war between the two states Merger or extinction of either sending or receiving state Change in the rank of diplomatic officer

Henry A. Kissinger:

Henry A. Kissinger German-born American political scientist and diplomat Henry Kissinger won the Nobel Peace Prize for his joint efforts with Le Duc Tho of North Vietnam to negotiate a peaceful settlement of the Vietnam War. He served as National Security Advisor and Secretary of State for both Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford . Kissinger played a significant role in United States foreign policy between 1969 and 1977. NAME: Henry Kissinger OCCUPATION: Diplomat, Political Scientist BIRTH DATE: May 27 , 1923 (Age: 90) EDUCATION: Harvard University PLACE OF BIRTH: Furth, Germany Full Name: Henry Alfred Kissinger ZODIAC SIGN: Gemini

How to become a Diplomat:

Ask about educational requirements, like professional degrees, preferred fields of study and whether you must become proficient in other languages. Learn as many different languages as you can. Know about other qualifications, such as whether you must be a natural born citizen and whether you must meet certain age requirements . For example, applicants in the United States must be between the ages of 21 and 59. Most diplomats have university degrees in international relations , political science , economics , or law . [2] How to become a Diplomat

Consider your personal qualifications.:

Consider your personal qualifications . Assess your physical readiness . Diplomats must receive medical clearance that they are able to travel broadly and live in areas with limited access to healthcare facilities. Determine whether you would pass security clearance. Governments perform background checks to confirm that applicants have no criminal background , are financially responsible and have not abused drugs or alcohol. Decide whether you possess the right temperament to relocate to any country your government sends you to and to uphold your government’s policies even though you may not agree with them. Reflect on your ability to speak effectively through an interpreter and your ability to negotiate and persuade without antagonizing others . Diplomats also must be able to adapt to living among people of diverse cultures


THE PUBLIC & PRIVATE SECTORS IN NIGERIA The public sector consists of governments and all publicly controlled or publicly funded agencies, enterprises, and other entities that deliver public programs, goods, or services. - Institute of Internal Auditors (2011), the public sector was widely regarded as the pivot that would promote socioeconomic development after independence. ( Ayee , 2005)


The private sector operates in a large segment of informal parts of the economy, small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs) with very little, if any linkage to the huge multinationals and an unproductive culture of dependence on government patronage and contracts ( Osemeke , 2011). The private sector is synonymous with efficiency. - Ajila and Awonusi (2004). Practices common within the sector include: differential wage payment as incentive to increase production; attract more experienced staff from rival organizations; improving and being open to the adoption of new management techniques.

Comparison of The Public & Private Sectors In Nigeria:

Comparison of The Public & Private Sectors In Nigeria MANAGEMENT PRACTICE PUBIC SECTOR (NIGERIA) PRIVATE SECTOR (NIGERIA) Operations Management Unclear Clear Human Resource Management Bureaucratic, Politically Influenced. Based on Merit, Motivated by Efficiency. Performance Monitoring Limited, Less Frequent. High, More Frequent. Incentive/People Management Poor, Fixed, Motivated by Legislation. Motivated by Efficiency, Performance. Decision Making Politically Motivated, Legislative Approval. Profit Driven, Motivated by Efficiency. Financial Control Merged with Administration. Separated from Administration. According to Babafemi Smith [2017], the following table shows a brief but concise comparison of selected management practices in both the private and public sector in Nigeria:

Management – What IS It?:

Management – What IS It?


Every individual or entity requires setting objectives, making plans, handling people, coordinating and controlling activities, achieving goals and evaluating performance directed towards organizational goals. These activities relate to the utilization of variables or resources from the environment − human, monetary, physical, and informational. Human resources refer to managerial talent, labor (managerial talent, labor, and services provided by them), monetary resources (the monetary investment the organization uses to finance its current and long-term operations), physical resources (raw materials, physical and production facilities and equipment) and information resources (data and other kinds of information). Management is essentially the bringing together these resources within an organization towards reaching objectives of an organization.

What Management is: :

What Management is:  ‘Attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading and controlling’ OR ‘organization and direction of resources to achieve a result’ (Samson & Daft 2003:9; Allison 1988) A manager is a role: ‘Sets objectives … organizes, motivates and communicates … and develops people’ (Drucker 1953, in Jones 2005:15)


Management guru, Peter Drucker, says the basic task of management includes both marketing and innovation. According to him, “Management is a multipurpose organ that manages a business and manages managers, and manages workers and work.” Harold Koontz defined management as ” the art of getting things done through and with people in formally organized groups.” Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling an organization’s human, financial, physical, information and other resources to achieve organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner. [Oyewole Sarumi, 2016]


These definitions place an emphasis on the attainment of organizational goals/objectives through deployment of the management process (planning, organizing, directing, etc.) for the best use of organization’s resources. Management makes human effort more fruitful thus effecting enhancements and development. The principles of management are the means by which a manager actually manages, that is, get things done through others − individually, in groups, or in organizations.

The Principles of Management:

The Principles of Management the principles of management are the activities that “plan, organize, and control the operations of the basic elements of [people], materials, machines, methods, money and markets, providing direction and coordination, and giving leadership to human efforts, so as to achieve the sought objectives of the enterprise.”

Management Cluster in PPO:

Management Cluster in PPO According to Allison (1998) management in both public and private organisations cluster around three areas: Strategy: objectives, priorities, plans Managing internal components : organising , staffing, directing, controlling etc. Managing external constituencies:   other units in organisation/system; other independent organisations; media; public


Managers are required in all the activities of organizations. Every organization has ‘Managers’ who are entrusted with the responsibility of guiding and directing the organization to achieve its goals. Managers administer and coordinate resources effectively and efficiently to channelize their energy towards successful accomplishment of the goals of the organization. Their expertise is vital across departments throughout the organization

Role of Managers:

Role of Managers Managers are the primary force in an organization's growth and expansion. Larger organizations are particularly complex due to their size, process, people and nature of business. Organizations need to be a cohesive whole encompassing every employee and their talent, directing them towards achieving the set business goals. This is an extremely challenging endeavor, and requires highly effective managers having evolved people management and communication skills.

Management Levels in Organisation:

Management Levels in Organisation

Management Levels in Organisation:

Management Levels in Organisation

The Changing Roles of Management and Managers:

The Changing Roles of Management and Managers Every organization has three primary interpersonal roles that are concerned with interpersonal relationships. The manager in the figurehead role represents the organization in all matters of formality. The top-level manager represents the company legally and socially to the outside world that the organization interacts with. In the supervisory role, the manager represents his team to the higher management. He acts as a liaison between the higher management and his team. He also maintains contact with his peers outside the organization.


The Top Management Senior Management General Management Functional Management Line and Staff Managers Project Manager

Mintzberg's Set of Ten Roles:

Mintzberg's Set of Ten Roles Professor Henry Mintzberg, a great management researcher, after studying managers for several weeks concluded that, to meet the many demands of performing their functions, managers assume multiple roles. He propounded that the role is an organized set of behaviors. He identified the following ten roles common to the work of all managers. These roles have been split into three groups as illustrated in the following figure.


Mintzberg's Set of Ten Roles

Interpersonal Role:

Interpersonal Role Figurehead  − Has social, ceremonial and legal responsibilities. Leader  − Provides leadership and direction. Liaison  − Networks and communicates with internal and external contacts.

Informational Role:

Informational Role Monitor  − Seeks out information related to your organization and industry, and monitors internal teams in terms of both their productivity and well-being. Disseminator  − Communicates potentially useful information internally. Spokesperson  − Represents and speaks for the organization and transmits information about the organization and its goals to the people outside it.

Decisional Role:

Decisional Role Entrepreneur  − Creates and controls change within the organization - solving problems, generating new ideas, and implementing them. Disturbance Handler  − Resolves and manages unexpected roadblocks. Resource Allocator  − Allocates funds, assigning staff and other organizational resources. Negotiator  − Involved in direct important negotiations within the team, department, or organization.

Proportion of Time Spent by Levels:

Proportion of Time Spent by Levels

Managerial Skills:

Managerial Skills Henri Fayol, a famous management theorist also called as the Father of Modern Management, identified three basic managerial skills – technical skill, human skill and conceptual skill.

Technical Skill:

Technical Skill Knowledge and skills used to perform specific tasks. Accountants, engineers, surgeons all have their specialized technical skills necessary for their respective professions. Managers, especially at the lower and middle levels, need technical skills for effective task performance. Technical skills are important especially for first line managers, who spend much of their time training subordinates and supervising their work-related problems.

Human Skill:

Human Skill Ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people as individuals or in groups. According to Management theorist Mintzberg, the top (and middle) managers spend their time: 59 percent in meetings, 6 percent on the phone, and 3 percent on tours. Ability to work with others and get co-operation from people in the work group. For example, knowing what to do and being able to communicate ideas and beliefs to others and understanding what thoughts others are trying to convey to the manager.

Conceptual Skill:

Conceptual Skill Ability to visualize the enterprise as a whole, to envision all the functions involved in a given situation or circumstance, to understand how its parts depend on one another, and anticipate how a change in any of its parts will affect the whole. Creativity, broad knowledge and ability to conceive abstract ideas. For example, the managing director of a telecom company visualizes the importance of better service for its clients which ultimately helps attract a vast number of clients and an unexpected increase in its subscriber base and profits.

Other Managerial Skills:

Other Managerial Skills Besides the skills discussed above, there are two other skills that a manager should possess, namely diagnostic skill and analytical skill. Diagnostic Skill  − Diagnose a problem in the organization by studying its symptoms. For example, a particular division may be suffering from high turnover. With the help of diagnostic skill, the manager may find out that the division’s supervisor has poor human skill in dealing with employees. This problem might then be solved by transferring or training the supervisor. Diagnostic skill enables managers to understand a situation, whereas analytical skill helps determine what to do in a given situation.


Analytical Skill  − Ability to identify the vital or basic elements in a given situation, evaluate their interdependence, and decide which ones should receive the most attention. This skill enables the manager to determine possible strategies and to select the most appropriate one for the situation. For example, when adding a new product to the existing product line, a manager may analyze the advantages and risks in doing so and make a recommendation to the board of directors, who make the final decision.

Manager’s Role:

Manager’s Role According to O’Toole, Meier & Nicholson-Crotty, manager’s role can be summarised as follows: Private sector  Respond to economic marketplace Profits and shareholder maximisation i.e. financial returns   Customer satisfaction to ensure financial returns Non-profits    Respond to donor marketplace Achievement of social purpose and satisfaction of donor desires Public sector    Respond to political marketplace Achievement of politically mandated mission and fulfilment of citizen Aspirations is to create public value

Public Sector Management: Roles & Responsibilities:

Public Sector Management: Roles & Responsibilities Effective public sector management relies on the contributions of many people. Each person or agency has specific roles and responsibilities that support the organization in meeting governance and accountability requirements. People and agencies involved include: Legislative Assembly Cabinet Ministers/Commissioners Responsible Ministry PS/DG Board of Directors/MD of Parastatals/Agencies President/Governors Ministry of Justice Accountant Generals/Treasury etc. etc.

Challenges For Public Managers!:

Challenges For Public Managers! Managing upward  Toward political leaders Toward authorising environment Managing outward   Networks of organisations (public, private, non-profit), citizenry, clients Managing downward   Into their own organisation – MDAs and parastatals.

The Place Of Diplomacy In The Roles Of Public And Private Sectors Managers:

The Place Of Diplomacy In The Roles Of Public And Private Sectors Managers Diplomacy is a way of life…and it is the ability to be polite and not hurtful but cautious in our dealings with others; don’t upset relationships; strive to live in harmony; negotiate and resolve conflicts peaceably; and speak with tact, wisdom and sense of decorum always to build and strengthen relationships. Therefore, long-term success of diplomacy is based on strong communication skills, planning, self-control, confidence and emotional intelligence.


As both private and public managers interact with people – upward, downward and horizontal etc. diplomatic techniques remain versatile tool to navigate the intricacies of government bureaucracies and private enterprise organized/hierarchical structures.


The major task of diplomacy today is to search… not for the balance of power, but for the balance of interest. Top priority of managers in private/public organisations is to reinvigorate in full scope traditional methods of diplomacy - the search for compromise solutions. The all or nothing mentality no longer works in both public and private enterprises. A partial and balanced approach is an answer to the new geopolitical and economic realities.


There is a place and space for the new diplomacy which is open, globalized, multilateral, democratic and involves strong publicity. When diplomacy became open, people are taken into confidence on various matters to get popular support. No manager will survive in the 21 st century unless he/she imbibes the spirit of the new diplomacy to effectively navigate the murky waters in today’s workplace.

Why Public Sector cannot be run like Private Sector:

Why Public Sector cannot be run like Private Sector It’s become a cliché that government would be better if it were only run by private-sector managers using standard business practices. But I declared that the environment is not the same. Why? The size, dollar value, and complexity of many government programs exceed that in the private sector. The government has fewer measures of progress or success than the private sector. Spending on a program is not equivalent to progress. The private sector has profit as a clear-cut measure. The civil service and compensation rules of the government make it more difficult to encourage outstanding performance and discourage poor performance.


The key reality to the private sector is market-driven competition, whereas the same in the government is almost always a legislated monopoly. There is very little personal gain in the government for taking risks on policy or programs and being successful in achieving the goals more effectively. However there is potential for substantial criticism and other personal loss if the innovative attempt fails. Private sector managers worry about creating added value, i.e. a product or service that can be sold competitively to the public. This requires the ability and skill to change, evolve, adapt and improve constantly. Government is frequently quite different. Managers in the government often know what needs to be done and desire to do it but are facing restrictions of laws, regulations, policies, often made years earlier for other circumstances, that prevent prompt action.


Authority and responsibility in the government tends to be asymmetric while authority and responsibility in the private sector are more clearly balanced. Responsibility in the government can be enormous while authority is frequently quite limited. Authority in government may be ambiguous and unclear in some circumstances. In other cases it is very clear and tightly restricted through laws, regulations, policies and directives that leave little, if any room for individual initiative. The senior/political leadership in Departments and Agencies turns over more frequently and to a larger extent than occurs in the private sector.


The main goal of most political appointees is to promote the policies of the Administration and/or change the policies of the previous Administration. Few political appointees focus on organizational management issues because they have no experience; will not be in government long; and desire to focus on policy issues, not management issues. Political appointees receive little encouragement to focus on management issues. The various forms of control on a government agency versus the few on the private sector are staggering. The staff of the Appropriations, Authorizing and Government Oversight committees are very powerful and can directly or through their members direct government agency actions. The Executive Branch disregards such staff at its peril. No similar institution affects the private sector.


Since political appointees know that their job tenure is very finite, they frequently spend a disproportionate amount of time considering or working towards their next private sector activity. So, they use opportunity in government to amass wealth and properties illegitimately without doing much for the people.


Summary Usage of the term - Concept and Definition Functions of Diplomats : Representation, Negotiation, Reporting, Protection of national interests and citizens Various types of Diplomacy - Comparison of Old and New diplomacy: Europe centered, ignore weak states, , secret, diplomats from aristocrat, more freedom, summit diplomacy Techniques of diplomacy Rules of Effective Diplomacy Options for Conducting Diplomacy Diplomatic Immunities   Termination of diplomatic missions: Expiry of the duration, Recall notice, persona non-grata, death/change of the government, Declaration of war, merger or extinction of either state

Summary … Cont’d:

Summary … Cont’d Definitions of Management Private and Public Managers – roles in Public, Non-profit and private enterprises, definition, challenges and differences. Place of Diplomacy in Public and Private Sector Managers While Public Sector cannot be run like Private Sector

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