Exploring The Act of Diplomacy & The Implication of Communication In G

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Understanding the impact and impart of Diplomacy and Effective Communication on Good Governance


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Dr. Oyewole O. Sarumi Senior Partner Teaching Learning Strategies Lagos Tel: 0803 304 1421 E-mail: tlstrategiesgmail.com 1

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□ Genesis of Good Governance □ From Public Administration to New Public Management □ T owards Governance □ Governance :Definitionkey actorsstakeholders □ T owards Good Governance □ Defining Good Governance □ Components and Characteristics of Good Governance □ 8 characteristics of Good Governance : UnitedNations □ Strategies for Good Governance □ Critique of Good Governance □ Examining Good Governance in Nigeria □ Improving Governance through Strategic Communication □ Conclusion

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 Prevailing views on good governance centre upon concepts of capability accountability and responsiveness.  They focus on the need for the full participation of citizens and civil society actors in governance and are predicated on the effective flow of information and dialogue between citizen governments and other actors.

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 By situating communication information dissemination and dialogue as key components of governance a positive correlation between communication and good governance is tacitly assumed.

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 If the above is going to be effectively done diplomacy will play an active role as the lubricant to ensure the positive flow of information and dialogue between government citizen and organisations. 5

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 Communication plays a number of roles in fostering good governance. It can:  Improve communities’ ability to identify and articulate their needs and to measure government performance.  Improve citizens’ understanding of their rights and build their capacity to engage in public dialogue and public affairs.  Provide citizens with direct information on the performance of government and the information required to hold government to account. 6

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 Better communication between citizens and states has also been credited with encouraging government responsiveness to citizens’ demands and resulting in better public services.  This communication between citizen and state cannot be realised directly and must be facilitated by intermediary actors. 7

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 Creating the ideal public sphere for good governance requires an active and inclusive civil society and a self-regulated professional media sector both of which are able to interact effectively with each other and with the state. 8

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REVISITING THE CONCEPTS “Diplomacy” “Communication” and “Governance” 9

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 The ability to assert your ideas or opinions knowing what to say and how to say it without damaging the relationship by causing offence.

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 The effective use of diplomacy relies on the following key skills:  A high level of common sense  Good judgement and practice  Active listening  Emotional intelligence  Showing empathy  Assertiveness  Rapport  Politeness

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 Attentive Listening: You need to be able to listen to not just what is being said but also how it is being said in order to understand and react appropriately to others. 13

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 Emotional Intelligence: People with higher emotional intelligence can usually use tact and diplomacy more naturally in communication.  Emotional intelligence is a measure of how well we understand our own emotions and the emotions of others. 14

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 Showing Empathy: As an extension to emotional intelligence empathy is your ability to see the world from another person’s perspective. 15

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 Assertiveness: The reason for using tact and diplomacy is very often to persuade or influence others to think or behave in a certain way. Assertiveness is fundamental to this process and a skill that many people lack. 16

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 Rapport: Rapport is closely linked to tact and diplomacy as well as emotional intelligence and good manners.  Politeness: Being polite and courteous respecting other people’s view-points and cultural differences is important in many interpersonal relationships. 17

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 Communication plays important role in governance  Communicationprocess of sending information via medium to receiver who sends feedback on information received.  Communication Types:  1.Mass large segment of receivers  2.Interpersonal small segment of receivers 20

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 1.Inform  2.Persuade  3.Resolve  4.Clarify  5.Influence  Objectives are two way Sender/Receiver 21

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Communication Channels Physical Media Mechanical Media

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 Person who is talking can be seen and heard by the audience  Not only hear the messages but also to see body language and feel the climate  Does not need to be two way channel  Especially used when dealing with high concern messages - organizational change or down sizing

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 Large meetings town hall meetings  Department meetings weekly meetings  Up close and personal exclusive meetings  Viral communication or word of mouth

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 Great symbolic value and should be used only at special occasions  Excellent when a new vision or strategy information about reorganization are to be presented

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 Communicate daily operative issues exchange status reports and discuss problems  Opportunity to build the big picture prepare for change create ownership of important strategies and goals

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 Form of meetings where often a senior manager meets with a “random” selection of employees to discuss and answer questions  Used in specific projects or campaigns e.g. launching new strategies

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 Marketing techniques that use pre-existing social networks to increase brand awareness such as product sales  Can be delivered by word of mouth or enhanced by the network effects of the Internet  May take the form of video clips interactive flash games ebooks images or text messages.

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 Second of the two types of communication medium  Written or electronic channels  Used as archives for messages or for giving the big picture and a deeper knowledge

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 E-mail  Weekly letters or newsletters  Personal letters  Billboards  Magazines or papers  Social media

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 Good channel for the daily communication to specific target groups  Suitable mainly for up-to- date and “simple” messages where there is no risk of misunderstanding

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 Generally used by managers that have large groups of employees and who have difficulties in meeting all of them  They can also contain summaries and status in tasks projects or issues – yesterday today and tomorrow

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 At special occasions it can be justified to send a personal letter to employees in order to get attention to a specific issue  Can be a letter with your personal commentary on an ongoing reorganization that affects many employees

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 One of the most forgotten types of communication media  Good thing - Inform people who do not have computers and/or access to the internet

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 Offers the opportunity to deepen a specific issue explain context describe consequences or tell a story  Create a broad internal understanding of strategic messages

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 Media designed to be disseminated through social interaction created using highly accessible and scalable publishing techniques  Supports the human need for social interaction using Internet- and web- based technologies to transform broadcast media monologues one to many into social media dialogues many to many

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 Good governance is an indeterminate term used in the international development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources.  Governance is "the process of decision- making and the process by which decisions are implemented or not implemented". 38

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Governance can be understood as:  The rules that regulate the public realm – the space where state as well as economic and societal actors interact to make decisions  and the processes and institutions both formal and informal through which public authority is exercised 39

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 The UN-Agency of The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific defines governance in general as “the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented or not implemented” UNESCAP 2013. 40

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 The World Bank points out “the capacity of the government to effectively formulate and implement sound policies” Worldbank2013. 41

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 Term emerged in 1990s from growing concerns about governance.  “Good Governance” defined as essential to promote development build capacity and combat poverty e.g. UN Commission for Africa DFID World Bank Commonwealth Secretariat etc.  Concept of “good governance” is broad but there is agreement on several key principles 42

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’ Governance is the process whereby societies or organizations make important decisions determine whom they Governance is a method through which power is exercised in the management of a country s political economic and social resources for development. World Bank 1992 involve and how they render account. Canada Institute of Governance is the manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country’s social and economic resources for development. Asian Development Bank 1995 ’ Governance 2002 Governance is the exercise of economic political and administrative authority to manage a country s affairs at all levels. It comprises the mechanisms processes and institutions through which citizens and groups articulate their interests exercise their legal rights meet their obligations and mediate their differences. UNDP 1997.

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 The United Kingdom Department for International Development DfID defines good governance as ―… not just about government. It is also about political parties parliament the judiciary the media and civil society. It is about how citizens leaders and public institutions relate to each other in order to make change happen. 44

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□ World Bank: Good governance entails □ sound public sector management efficiency effectiveness and economy □ accountability □ exchange and free flow of information transparency □ and a legal framework for development justice respect for human rights and liberties. □ DFID Good Governance is defined focusing on □ legitimacy government should have the consent of the governed □ accountability ensuring transparency being answerable for actions and media freedom □ competence effective policy making implementation and service delivery □ and respect for law and human rights.

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□ Governance □ Value neutral‘good’ governance to qualify governance □ WB Report ‘Governance and Development’ 1992 □ Further developed the concept of Governance □ Defines Good Governance ■ Synonymous to sound development management ■ Central to creating and sustaining an environment which fosters strong and equitable development ■ Essential component of sound economic policies

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 Provisionallyprocess structure of decision- making implementation in organizations states or communities.  Good governance includes management of resources for effectiveness and equitable distribution. 47

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Governance: Goes beyond the Government State: Creating a favorable political legal economic environment State Market: Civil Society: Civil Society Market Creating opportunities for people Mobilizing peoples’ participation

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Executive Legislature Judiciary Media Stakeholders in Governance Social Orgns. Private Sector Governance is too important to be left to the government....

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 1.Voice Accountability Democracy Participation  2.Political/Organizational/Community Stability and Absence of Violence/Disruption/Resistance  3.Government/Organizational/Community Effectiveness Service Delivery  4.Regulatory Quality Service Delivery  5.Rule of Law  6.Control of Corruption 54 Kaufmann-Kraay-Mastruzzi Worldwide Governance Indicators –World Bank

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Governance Issues Governance Components Indicators  Extent of citizens participation in selection The Process by which Governments are selected monitored and replaced  Voice and Accountability  Political Stability of governments Civil liberties political rights Perceptions that the government in power will be destabilised by possible unconstitutional means  Government Effectiveness  Perceptions of quality of public service provision quality of bureaucracy competence of civil servants independence of civil service from political pressures credibility of government’s commitment to policies. The capacity of the government to effectively formulate and implement policies  Regulatory Quality  The incidence of market unfriendly policies such as price controls respect o f citizen s The and th e  Rule of Law   Success of the society in developing an environment in which fair and predictable rules form the basis for economic and social interactions institutions economic state that and for govern social interaction among them Control of Corruption  Perceptions of the incidence of crime effectiveness and predictability of judiciary and enforceability of contracts.  Perceptions of corruption

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□ Accountability □ Key requirement of Good Governance □ Applicable to government civil society and private sector □ Types : Political legal administrative and social accountability □ Components :Answerability sanction redress and system improvement □ Transparency □ Free flow of information □ Accessibility of information to those affected by decisions taken in governance process □ Responsiveness □ Citizen orientation citizen friendliness □ Timely delivery of services □ Redress of citizen grievances

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□ Effectiveness and efficiency □ Optimum use of resources □ Competency and performance of civil servants □ Result orientation □ Rule of law □ Fair legal framework □ Impartial enforcement machinery □ Independent judiciary □ Participation □ Cornerstone of Good Governance □ Opportunities for citizens to participate in decision making implementation and monitoring of government activities □ Freedom of expression and association organized civil society

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□ Equity and inclusiveness □ All groups particularly the most vulnerable have opportunities to improve or maintain their well being □ Equal opportunities for participation in decision making process □ Consensus Orientation □ Mediation of different interests in society to reach a broad consensus on ■ What is in the best interest of the whole community ■ How this can be achieved

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Strategic Vision Consensus Orientation Good Governance Accountable Responsive Transparent Equitable Inclusive Effective Efficient Rule of Law Participatory

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e-Delivery Extensive Feedback Channels IT enabled Grievance Systems Supported By

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□ Reorienting priorities of the state through appropriate investment in human needs and provision of social safety nets for the poor and marginalized □ Strengthening state institutions □ Introducing appropriate reforms in the functioning of Parliament and increasing its effectiveness □ Enhancing civil service capacity through appropriate reform measures that matches performance and accountability □ Forging new alliances with civil society organisations □ Evolving a new framework for government-business co-operation

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□ Need contextual understanding □ Good Governance – Neo liberal thrust + Globalization □ T endency to depoliticize government □ Reduce the art of governing to an apolitical and technical exercise □ Ambiguous definition of good governance □ ‘Good’ in Good Governance is subjective and is subject to interpretations □ Who defines what is good □ Over emphasis on governance indicators and quantification □ "Not everything that can be counted counts and not everything that counts can be counted“ - Albert Einstein □ Good governance institutions do not guarantee automatic reduction of poverty and sustainable development □ T endency to do governance without government □ PPPs NGOs non-state actors – unaccountable invisible

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 1.Creates flow of information between the governors and the governed  2.Promotes dialogue between the governors and the governed  3.Enables the governors to influence opinions attitudes and behavioural change of the governed  4.A voice for the governed to be heard by the governors 63

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• Executive • Legislature • Judiciary • Auditor General’s Office • ACC • Election Commission Civil Service Pillars of good governance

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 President  Vice President  Cabinet Ministers FEC  NEC  All the MDAs  All public employees  Others

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 The Senate members - 109  The Members of HOR - 360  The Clerks of the 2 Chambers  All Standing committees - over 100  Making laws Consistency accountability  Oversight functions of MDAs

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 The Supreme Court  The Court of Appeal  The Federal High Courts  The State High Courts  The Magistrates/Alikalis  The Customary Courts/Sharia Court

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 Constitutionally independent  Operationally dependent on Executive  Report submitted via the Executive  Limited performance audit – mainly regularity compliance  Delayed submission  Audit/ Accounting functions

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 EFCC ICPC CCB CCT etc.  Legally independent  Dysfunctional/Bounds  Inadequate resources  Poor human resources  Subjugation of rules and policy  Lack of political willingness to prosecute

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 Constitutionally independent….but  Get funding directly appropriated by the legislature…..but  Lack of capacity to expedite election irregularities  REC/National Commissioners post still vacant  Lack of Political will better now…. But

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 Over 500 radio/TV stations over 50 million online 100 newspapers and magazines  Freedom of press constitutional  There are still restrictive laws….  Media ownership is now more private but still tribal sectional…..  Many Reporters without borders….  Use of advertising for revenue generation…….. ……compromise very high……  The FOI Bill ….. Any effect

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 Several cadres other services  Insensitive and bureaucratic  Political unhealthy service conditions for junior cadres  Merit is not primary criterion- Federal Character quota is Alive  No whistle blower’s protection

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 About 40 are legally registered.  Representation of the people order.  There is no compliance of election expense return and even fund source  False public disclosure by most parties  Funds used illegally – buying votes.  Many are very weak and without ideology

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 Politics is the process of making uniform decisions applying to all members of a group. It also involves the use of power by one person to affect the behavior of another person.  Politics usually refers to how a government wants to run its own affairs and how it interacts with other states.

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 Growing vibrant  NGO’s role is also increasing  Few advocacy/human right groups  Environment Women’s rights groups  Some are politically inclined which…….

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 Human rights are rights inherent to all human beings whatever our nationality place of residence sex national or ethnic origin colour religion language or any other status.  We are all equally entitled to our human rights without discrimination. These rights are all interrelated interdependent and indivisible.

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 a Ignorance  b Corruption  c Politicization of administration  d Weak democratic institutions  e Ineffective parliament  f Absence of the rule of law and  g Absence of meritocracy etc. 78

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 Diplomacy and Tact are methods used to aid effective communication especially during negotiation and when attempting to be persuasive or assertive.  When deploy appropriately diplomacy can lead to improved relationships with other people and are a way to build and develop mutual respect which in turn can lead to more successful outcomes and less difficult or stressful communications.

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 Tact and diplomacy - Skills centred around an understanding of other people and being sensitive to their opinions beliefs ideas and feelings.  Effective use of such skills comes from being able to sense accurately what another person is feeling or thinking at any given time and then responding in such a way as to avoid bad feelings or awkwardness whilst at the same time asserting or reflecting your own ideas and feelings back in a delicate and well- meaning fashion.

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 Developing effective tact and diplomacy skills requires practice and good judgement. These skills are not limited to use in formal communications such as in the workplace: tact and diplomacy are also important when developing and maintaining friendships romantic relationships and relationships in the family.

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 We all have to communicate painful or sensitive information at some point in our careers. And while its important to tell the truth we need to think about how we do it. Tact allows us to be honest while respecting a persons feelings.  When we communicate tactfully we can preserve relationships build credibility and demonstrate thoughtfulness. Here we will examine what tact is and well look at how you can develop this important quality.

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 …..the ability to assert your ideas or opinions knowing what to say and how to say it without damaging the relationship by causing offence.

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 Tact is the ability to tell the truth in a way that considers other peoples feelings and reactions. It allows you to give difficult feedback communicate sensitive information and say the right thing to preserve a relationship.  Tact encompasses many things including emotional intelligence respect discretion self awareness thoughtfulness compassion subtlety honesty diplomacy and courtesy.

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 Tact is the art of making a point without making an enemy.- Isaac Newton  Diplomacy is the art of letting somebody else have your way. - David Frost

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 The ability to communicate with sensitivity and diplomacy offers many benefits:  1. Tact is important when you have to deliver bad news or provide critical feedback whether in personal or professional situations.

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 2. Communicating tactfully strengthens your reputation and builds your credibility.  3. It allows you to preserve existing relationships and build new ones.  4. A tactful approach shows character maturity professionalism and integrity.

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 5. Tact also demonstrates good manners. If you can communicate with grace and consideration youll stand out from the crowd and youll get noticed for the right reasons. This can lead to career opportunities.

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 6. Tact can help you to avoid conflict find common ground and allow others to save face.  It can therefore be an important asset in negotiations and in conflict resolution.

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 The public sphere was first conceptualized by Jürgen Habermas 1984 as the locus of free open and informed public discourse.  The public sphere - the locus of discussion and deliberation where citizens come together to form public opinion is at the center of participatory approaches to development via democracy. 94

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 Within this sphere arguments and reason prevail over status and tradition allowing decisions to be made through a fair democratic process.  A public sphere adequate to a democratic polity depends upon both quality of discourse and quantity of participation.’ 95

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 Societies with dense networks of civic associations even if the majority of them are not overtly political are more likely to have high levels of reciprocal trust and efficacy.  Participation in civic associations has been shown to increase trust between citizens a process that then enhances political self- confidence by improving tolerance and negotiation and problem-solving skills. 96

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 Civil societies in developing countries in Latin America and Eastern Europe have been credited with democratizing society ‘from below’ while also pressuring authoritarian regimes for change.  The role that civil society can and will play depends upon the larger political setting 97

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 The importance of state-civil society interaction the institutional framework – which exist and flourish.  Through effective use of communication strategies CSOs can cultivate and strengthen a public sphere that holds its government accountable and facilitates the development of a society. 98

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 Media is a umbrella term which covers several medium- print television radio internet etc.  Content wise Media can cover news entertainment and education.

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TVs Radio political debates Newspapers’ surveys Investigations Web-sites Blogs Polls Facebook Twitter etc. are means informing the people about:  the main challenges economic social etc. at international/domestic levels  how the government is facing these challenges  how families and citizens are affected by the situation and react to these measures.

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 A nation’s media system is integral in nurturing a well functioning public sphere and is an invaluable part of good governance because of its promotion of dialogue its stimulation of a responsive and well-informed civil society its role as political and governmental watchdog and its agenda- setting function. 103

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 The World Bank sees free plural and independent media systems as playing a major role in laying down the institutional infrastructure that enables dialogue and the organization of public interests both nationally and internationally. 104

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 Media systems also dictate the framing and agenda setting of information dissemination.  Framing is the process through which a particular issue is presented and can influence will by highlighting certain issues or aspects of an issue and deemphasizing others. 105

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 Agenda setting works much in the same way and describes the ways that media public and political agendas influence which issues are considered important. 106

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 Media is most influential institution today  The NBC had in the last 20 years licensed 402 operational broadcasters out of which 123 are privately owned.  Over 90 million Nigerians online 107

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 SMmedia created by new info technologies  Social because helps people relate  Share personal and official information  Covers distance space time and people  Can be measured more effectively  Has feedback: comments replies shares likes  Most important: Facebook Skype Twitter LinkedIn YouTube Email Website 110

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 Increase customers  Create awareness of products/services  Test perception of products and services  Grow loyalty retention of client base  Clarify existing information/misinformation  Receive feedback on products and services  Convert potential customers on inquiries  Promote image of the organization 111

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 1.Work with a plan usually three months  2.Consistence message and schedule  3.Be reliable offline action same as on-line communication  4.Keep messages short and effective  5.Use images  6.Share/Multiply/Recruit  7.Time-Space allow posts to be internalized 112

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 Effective Communication involves using tact and diplomacy.  Good governance cannot be birth in any nations without the use of diplomacy to communicate to the citizen relate with CSO and other stakeholders in the polity.  Media plays an active and important role in bringing together all parties to speak and to be heard in the public sphere. 114

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 Government – Citizen  Media to Government  Media to Citizen  Civil Society Organisations to Citizen  Media to Media  Citizen to Citizen  Government to Stakeholders NOTE: The medium or channel for these platforms to be heard is THE MEDIA

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 For Good Media Good Governance the following are key: ▪ Investigative journalism ▪ Community journalism ▪ Media against a culture of impunity ▪ Media and the issue of corruption ▪ Social media and governance ▪ Media and the elections ▪ Media ethics and ▪ Freedom of information. 117

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 Media analyse and explain to citizens political issues at global European and domestic level  Media analyse and explain to politicians and citizens both: political situations and social reactions and behaviours. Pluralistic information: a mediator between politicians and society.

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 It enjoys credibility built over years of faith and trust  It is perceived to be  Truthful  Unbiased  Knowledgeable  Having basic humane values  Having a moral universe  Having social responsibility

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 It informs  It acts as a platform  It forms opinion  It shapes perceptions  It reinforces belief  It influences people at the grass roots as well as decision makers  It prompts action  It can act as a catalyst in a change process  It can inflict serious damage on the reputation of a company/individual

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 In democracy governance needs willingness of the people to be governed.  That willingness stems from the feeling that it is for their good  For that feeling information is essential  Media can provide information shape perception and influence.  It has a stake in doing this. Its survival as an independent entity depend on this.  It is also its source of power.

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 Media as a Watchdog  Media as an Informer  Media as a Platform  Media as an Enabler  Media as a Public sphere

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 It is said that sunshine is the best disinfectant.  That somebody is watching me- is the best deterrent to lot of social maladies like corruption

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 Democracy implies participative governance and it is media that informs people about various problems of society which makes those wielding power on their behalf answerable to them.

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 People can participate in governance  Air their grievances

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 Media increases people’s access to information. Information that brings them power and prosperity.  consumption and Development: Kerala and Bihar

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 People can air and share their ideas.  Issues can be discussed.  Socially responsible journalism is a struggle to gain public space within the private sphere.

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128  1.Creates accountability and transparency  2.Watchdog over abuse of power resources  3.Enables debate on issues of governance  4.Enables public participation in agenda  5.Sets agenda for policy makers  6.Marketing ideas products and services

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“Media affects the overall quality of public life and also shapes people’s engagement in the specific policy decisions in the Nigeria fledging democracy”. 130

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 Media should be:  Positive  Proactive  Informed

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 Consider Media as an ally  Provide information for dissemination  Don’t try to hide/mislead

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 1. Is planned  2. Achieves objectives  2. In language understood by receivers  3. Use appropriate medium for receivers  4. Enable feedback and evaluation  5. Be integrated mix communication channels. 134

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 Development Communication – the art and science of human communication applied to the speedy transformation of a country and the mass of its people from poverty to a dynamic state of economic growth that makes possible greater social equity and the larger fulfillment of the human potential. 135

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 Dynamic state of economic growth  Greater social equality  Larger fulfillment of the human potential – desire to achieve a constant evolution towards perfection. 136

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 Publicity per se  Mass communication alone  Just a slideset leaflet or a seminar  Source-oriented but audience-oriented  Only an exercise of profession but a commitment to social goals 137

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 Lent’s Perspective – In 1977 He maintains that Development Communication can both be the government’s LAPDOG or WATCHDOG. 138

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 Our understanding of development communication is that it is a discipline which makes use of various communication media and materials to educate and motivate the community to change as well as initiating research and applying scientific methods to be able to analyze all aspects of a development problem. 139

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 Focusing on the people as its end-user or intended beneficiaries it is capable of achieving its goals and accomplishing change in a shorter time what normally takes years to do so. 140

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Diplomacy as an instrument of good governance should adjust itself to meet the new challenges to become more relevant open and agile to modify its methods and to fully utilise opportunities offered by the technological revolution. Modern diplomacy which requires a variety of skills in particular familiarity with the art and science of negotiations proves its ability to work in a new multicultural environment with different actors including the civil society.

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 Flexibility which was always the trademark of diplomacy provides the hope that diplomacy will not only adapt to new challenges but will also be helpful both for states and other new actors on the international scene in their efforts to create a better world for the twenty-first century. 142

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 The purpose of government is to protect and serve the people being governed to insure that they enjoy the basic rights and freedoms needed to live useful fulfilled lives.  Effective communication spiced with diplomacy is a great instrument to help in the cultivation of good governance culture. 143

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 Agere S. 2000. Promoting good governance. Commonwealth Secretariat London.  Natascha Zeitel-Bank. Good Governance And Political Communication In The EU. World Bank. 2013. The Worldwide Governance Indicators WWGI. Retrieved from http://info.worldbank.org /governance/wgi/index.asp.  UK DfID CommGAP Working Paper on: “Communication For Good Governance”. From commgapworldbank.org 144

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 KPMG. Communications and Governance -Lessons from the Governance and Transparency Fund. DEVELOPMENT IN PRACTICE: International Development Advisory Services IDAS AFRICA. Impact Paper 6 February 2012  The Role of Communication in Governance. An output from a project entitled "ICD Knowledge Sharing and Learning Programme". The work was carried out by members of the Gamos Consortium. www.ic4dev.org/ 145

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 Fr. Cornelio Lagerwey. Introduction to Development Communication. Retrieved from http://cfamedia.org/main/p2427  Vladimir Petrovsky. Diplomacy as an instrument of good governance. From Modern Diplomacy. Ed by J. Kurbalija 1998  Ephraim Okoro. The Media Development Communication and Governance in Nigeria: The Press for National Integration. Culled from http://hrmars.com/hrmars_papers/ 146

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