Sociology-111.1

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Assisted Suicide:

Assisted Suicide By: Brandon Anderson, Caitlin Merrell, Amber Cox, Taylor Fernberg , Jennica Adamson, and Lauren Hoehn

Assisted Suicide :

Assisted Suicide Physician A ssisted Suicide Euthanasia Mercy Killing

History of Assisted Suicide:

History of Assisted Suicide “Suffering has always been a part of human existence” “Requests to end suffering by means of death have occurred since the beginning of medicine”

Scope of Assisted Suicide:

Scope of Assisted Suicide “57% of physicians practicing today have received a request for physician assisted suicide in some form or another Oregon is the only state that can lawfully practice Physician Assisted Suicide The Netherlands , Canada, Switzerland , Belgium , United Kingdom, Spain, Australia, New Zealand , Columbia , Luxembourg , Scotland

Sociological Theories and Assisted Suicide:

Sociological Theories and Assisted Suicide Conflict Theory Structural functionalism Symbolic interactionism

Conflict Theory:

Conflict Theory Example: Pro-assisted suicide Physicians obligations to: Relieve pain Promote dignity of dying Respect patients decisions Anti-assisted suicide Modern medicine Symptom care Different avenues Definition: Society has conflict and change Majority vs. Minority in assisted suicide beliefs (Knight , Sarah J., Ph. D., and Charles Von Gunten , M.D., Ph. D.)

Structural Functionalism:

Structural Functionalism Definition: how society controls social conflicts Laws are set forth to regulate certain social problems Example: National Laws vs. State Laws (“State Laws on Physician-Assisted Suicide-Euthanasia- ProCon.or .”)

Symbolic interactionism :

Symbolic interactionism Definition: how individuals perceive things by the symbols they portray Definition of assisted suicide compared to individual circumstance. Assisted suicide: suicide committed by someone with assistance from another person Terminally ill patient ( Pretzer , Michael.)

PowerPoint Presentation:

Patient and/or family consent Public education to the benefits of physician assisted suicide Ethical & Moral benefits to assisted suicide Solutions

PATIENT AND OR FAMILY CONSENT :

PATIENT AND OR FAMILY CONSENT Oriented patients aware of the situation have the right to 1) freedom of speech and 2) the unalienable right to Life. He or she then has the right to end it if seen fit under grave circumstances. If a patient is terminally ill and in pain, one may see fit to rid themselves of that torture by requesting the “plug be pulled.” Un -oriented patients, have family that can consciously make decisions for them. “Presumably the family will help to assure that the patient's choice is truly voluntary and that the patient has appropriately sought out other care options before concluding that death through suicide is the only effective way to avoid further suffering.” Do Not Resuscitate order. “DNR”

PUBLIC EDUCATION TO THE BENEFITS OF PHYSICIAN ASSISTED SUICIDE :

PUBLIC EDUCATION TO THE BENEFITS OF PHYSICIAN ASSISTED SUICIDE What is Physician Assisted Suicide? Exercise the Right to Life [live or die] Death: A compassionate way to end terminal suffering.

Ethical & Moral benefits to assisted suicide :

Ethical & Moral benefits to assisted suicide End painful mental and physical torture to patients Increasing medical costs for terminal illnesses. (costs forced onto families) Pain and anguish of the patient's family and friends can be lessened

Qualifiers and Reservations of Assisted Suicide:

Qualifiers and Reservations of Assisted Suicide There is always the possibility that an attempted suicide could go wrong and cause even more devastating consequences for the person. Instead of feeling forced into a suicide of their own design that may prove painful or not even be successful, it seems to be the most humane option for most people to allow them a more guaranteed painless result. There is almost a universal agreement that a competent adult has the right to self-determination, including the right to have life-sustaining treatment withheld or withdrawn. There is always another way for someone to relieve suffering when other treatment is not working through assisted suicide.

Qualifiers and Reservations of Assisted Suicide Cont.:

Qualifiers and Reservations of Assisted Suicide Cont. Most arguments against assisted suicide are not based on research but rather on notions of morality and religious doctrine. We have made great strides in improving end-of-life care through palliative care and hospice programs, but often, for many people, it’s just not enough. Most people who remain at home with family providing care often feel like they are a burden on their caregivers. Many believe that death is a form of happiness for those who choose it. Death is already an option for everyone.

Rebuttals:

Rebuttals “Slippery slope” argument “ Once legalized, physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia would become routine. Over time doctors would become comfortable giving injections to end life and Americans would become comfortable having euthanasia as an option. Comfort would make us want to extend the option to others who, in society's view, are suffering and leading purposeless lives .” (Ezekiel Emanuel)

Rebuttals (continued):

Rebuttals (continued) The problem is: - This argument is, as its name suggests, a fallacy known as “slippery slope.” A “slippery slope” argument is one which argues that “if A happens… eventually Z will happen too. Z should not happen. Therefore, A should not happen either.” (Fallacy Files) -The argument lacks a middle ground, solid evidence to prove that A (in this case, physician-assisted suicide) will lead to Z (non-voluntary Euthanasia.)

Rebuttals (continued):

Rebuttals (continued) National Center for Biotechnology Information and “Pulling up the runaway: the effect of new evidence on euthanasia's slippery slope.” - Remmelink study -Subsequent study -The Slippery slope argument. The Remmelink study “life termination by the administration of lethal drugs without an explicit persistent request from the patient accounted for 0.8% of Dutch deaths” (Ryan)

Rebuttals (continued):

Rebuttals (continued) The Argument: “The Dutch… had allowed physician-assisted suicide and voluntary euthanasia and as a result nearly one per cent of their citizens were falling victim to non-voluntary or involuntary euthanasia“ (Ryan). The problem: The Remmelink study was the first of its kind. There was no point of comparison. “it was impossible to know from that one result whether the incidence of non-voluntary euthanasia in Holland was actually increasing, decreasing or staying the same“ (Ryan).

Rebuttals:

Rebuttals Subsequent study A study was conducted 5 years later which showed results contrary to those expected by those opposing physician-assisted suicide. “The prevalence of life-terminating acts without specific request had fallen since 1990 to 0.7% (down from 0.8%)“ (Ryan).

Rebuttals:

Rebuttals Conclusions: The claim that legalizing physician-assisted suicide will lead to higher number of cases of non-voluntary euthanasia has no middle ground. In fact, the evidence suggests the contrary.

Assisted suicide is a viable option :

Assisted suicide is a viable option There is life after death, death is not the end of our existence Keeping someone on life support with no chance of recovery extends suffering for the person and their loved ones.

Laws and Regulations:

Laws and Regulations 3 states have legalized physician-assisted suicide 47 states and DC consider Assisted Suicide Illegal 39 states have laws prohibiting assisted suicide 4 states and DC prohibit assisted suicide by common law 7 states have no specific laws regarding assisted suicide

The Reality of the Situation:

The Reality of the Situation Real people are affected by these situations everyday We must understand that these situations and choices are complex and complicated issues

The Point:

The Point Assisted suicide is a better option than suffering with no chance of recovery Although difficult, a choice must be made Sometimes the right choice is assisted suicide

References:

References Rogatz P. The virtues of physician-assisted suicide. http://www.thehumanist.org/humanist/articles/rogatz.htm. Updated 2001. Accessed 12/5, 2012. Smith N. The positive aspects of physician assisted suicide . http://www.thehumanist.org/humanist/articles/rogatz.htm. Updated 2012. Accessed 12/5/12, 2012. Brody, Howard. "Physician-Assisted Suicide: Family Issues." Physician-Assisted Suicide: Family Issues . AnnArbor , Michigan: MPublishing , n.d . Web. 05 Dec. 2012. <http://quod.lib.umich.edu/m/mfr/4919087.0001.103?rgn=main;view=fulltext>. Darr , Kurt. "Physician-Assisted Suicide: Legal and Ethical Considerations." Journal of Health Law 40.1 (2007): n. pag . 2007. Web. 5 Dec. 2012. <http://www.healthlawyers.org/Publications/Journal/Documents/Vol%2040%20Issue%201/Physician Assisted%20Suicide-%20Legal%20and%20Ethical%20Considerations.pdf>. Emanuel, Ezekiel. "Whose Right To Die?" Whose Right To Die? The Atlantic Online, Mar. 1997. Web. 05 Dec. 2012. "Euthanasia." Procon.org . N.p ., n.d . Web. <http://euthanasia.procon.org/>. Grimstad , Julie. "Euthanasia." All.org . American Life League, n.d . Web. <http://www.all.org/nav/index/heading/OQ/cat/NDA/>. Knight, Sarah J., Ph. D., and Charles Von Gunten , M.D., Ph. D. "Physician-Assisted Suicide." Physician-Assisted Suicide . National Cancer Institute, 24 Mar. 2004. Web. 05 Dec. 2012. <http://endlink.lurie.northwestern.edu/physician_assisted_suicide_debate/what.cfm.> "Physician Assisted Suicide (Pros & Cons, Arguments For and Against, Advantages & Disadvantages of Euthanasia or Doctor- Assisted Suicice )." Balanced Politics . N.p ., n.d . Web. <http://www.balancedpolitics.org/assisted_suicide.htm>. Pretzer , Michael. "Assisted Suicide Should It Be Legal." Cable News Network, 25 Jan. 2000. Web. <http://articles.cnn.com/2000- 01-25/health/assisted.suicide.wmd_1_physicianassisted-suicide-terminally-ill-patients-deadly-drug?_s=PM:HEALTH>. Ryan, C. J. "Pulling up the Runaway: The Effect of New Evidence on Euthanasia's Slippery Slope." Journal of Medical Ethics 24.5 (1998): 341-44. PubMed Central . National Center for Biotechnology Information. Web. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1377611/>. "Slippery Slope." Logical Fallacy: . N.p ., n.d . Web. 05 Dec. 2012. <http://www.fallacyfiles.org/slipslop.html>. "State Laws on Physician-Assisted Suicide - Euthanasia - ProCon.org." State Laws on Physician-Assisted Suicide - Euthanasia - ProCon.org . ProCon.org, Nonprofit, 03 Dec. 2012. Web. 05 Dec. 2012. http://euthanasia.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000132. "Where It Is Legal in the World." Wisconsin Right to Life . Life, n.d . Web. 5 Dec. 2012. http://www.wrtl.org/assistedsuicide/assistedsuicide/whereitislegalworld.aspx "Introduction to Physician-Assisted Suicide." End Link: Resource for End of Life Care Education . N.p ., n.d . Web. 5 Dec. 2012.http:// endlink.lurie.northwestern.edu / physician_assisted_suicide_debate / what.cfm#What is Physician-Assisted Suicide? https://ch1prd0106.outlook.com/owa/redir.aspx?C=OQECDcHRs0- isXJwKjoLDXXRX52Ap88IlAdwMCsacU4cIkCYWX3U3QZ7wl3r- _sTk9VTd3Q- X6M.&URL=http%3a%2f%2feuthanasia.procon.org%2fview.resource.php%3fresourceID%3d000132

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