5. Defeating Japan

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Slide 2:

Summarize the Japanese advance through the Pacific. Describe the Allied struggle to stop Japanese expansion and then go on the offensive in the Pacific. Explain the importance of the Philippines Campaign, the Battle of Layte Gulf, and the Battle of Iwo Jima, Describe the Manhattan Project and the effects of nuclear war. Lesson Objectives

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The US will have to rely on the Navy and Marine Corp to smash Japanese aggression. Japanese Aggression December 7 th & 8 th ,1941: The US islands of the Philippines and Midway were also targets of the Japanese.

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Empire of Japan (1942)

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Field Marshall of US and Filipino troops when the Japanese attack the Philippines. Fleeing the islands after four months of battle, MacArthur vowed “I Shall Return”. Douglas MacArthur “I’ll Be Back, err I Shall Return!”

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The 76,000 US and Filipino prisoners captured by the Japanese were forced to march 60 miles under brutal conditions across the Philippines. A Japanese Atrocity The Bataan Death March saw 10,000 of the 76,000 prisoners die along the road.

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The Bataan Death March

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After Pearl Harbor, the US Navy resorted to relying upon their 6 aircraft carriers and submarines. Examples: The US relied upon naval aircraft at the Battles of Coral Sea and Midway. The US Fights Back At the Battle of Coral Sea, Japanese expansion was halted and at the Battle of Midway, they were inflicted with irreplaceable damages.

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Once the US goes on the offensive, they use a strategy called Island-hopping . Attacking or bypassing specific enemy islands. Like Frogs Because of a determined enemy, Island Hopping will be a smart, but costly tactic for the US. Island-hopping Goals: Philippines & possibly Japan

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Island-hopping Campaign

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In 1944, as the Allies were launching D-Day in Europe, MacArthur was planning to return to the Philippines. Philippines Campaign With a force of 160,000 Marines, MacArthur fulfilled a promise, and liberated the Philippines.

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I’m Back!

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As the US Marines battled on the Philippines, 280 US and Japanese warships battled for 3 days. Japan lost a significant number of naval vessels as well as vital petroleum resources. Battle of Leyte Gulf USS Princeton Code of Bushido During this battle Japanese pilots carried out kamikaze attacks. Purposely crashing planes into naval vessels to cause damage.

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Kamikaze Pilots

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The Japanese defenders of the Philippines gave US commanders a hint of the future: Of the 80,000 Japanese, 79,000 fought to the death rather than surrender. A Fierce Foe US commanders feared intense resistance closer to mainland Japan.

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An island only 14 square miles in size and 650 miles South of Tokyo. Two airstrips located on the island. Mount Suribachi, an extinct volcanic vent, was a strategic point on the southern end of the island. Iwo Jima The 18,000 Japanese troops that defended the island had created a vast tunnel network, with fortified bunkers, and hidden artillery.

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Prior to the assault, the US bombarded the island with over 7,000 tons of bombs. It took 35 days and 26,825 US casualties to take the island. Battle of Iwo Jima The Medal of Honor was awarded to 27 Marines who fought on the island. Of the 18,000 Japanese soldiers only 216 were taken prisoner.

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Battle of Iwo Jima

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As the US hopped closer to Japan, the cost of war was staggering. At the Battle of Okinawa, 350 miles from Japan, the US suffered 50,000 casualties. Can Island-hopping Work? Japan lost over 110,000 troops and another 100,000 civilians were wounded, killed, or committed suicide.

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Battle of Okinawa

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The US planned to invade mainland Japan. US casualty estimates were as high as 1,400,000. Other options? Operation Downfall

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The Manhattan Project Albert Einstein In 1945, Einstein sent FDR another letter warning him of the dreadful results if an atomic bomb were ever used. Because of the Presidents death, the letter lay on his desk, unopened! A secret plan by the US and Great Britain to develop a nuclear bomb. In 1939, a Jewish physicist, Albert Einstein, informed President Roosevelt of the Nazi’s attempt to build a nuclear bomb.

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The Messerschmitt Me 262 was the first operational jet plane in History. Nazi Technology The V-2 was the first ballistic missile. The Horten Ho 229 was a bomber that incorporated stealth technology. The StG 44 was the first modern assault rifle. The German Nuclear Energy Project.

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A Difficult Decision Drop an Atomic Bomb With the risk of dreadful consequences. Invade Mainland Japan With the risk of losing millions of US lives. OR

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He decided to drop two bombs on two Japanese cities: Hiroshima Nagasaki Truman’s Decision These two bombs would be the first and only bombs used in the history of warfare.

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Importance: An important industrial and military city. It was one of several Japanese cities left undamaged by US bombs. Plane: Enola Gay Bomb: Little Boy Killed: 14,000 Japanese Hiroshima

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Destruction of Hiroshima Before After

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Nagasaki Importance: Largest sea port in Southern Japan. Immense industrial activity and shipment of war related goods. Plane: Bockstar Bomb: Fat Man Killed: 39,000 Japanese

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Destruction of Nagasaki Before After

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Explosive Blast Effects Shockwave…200-500 mph winds Thermal Radiation…HOT! Direct Nuclear Radiation Poisoning Fallout….the radioactive material in the mushroom clouds. What Kills?

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Nagasaki bomb: 21 kilotons of TNT The largest bomb ever tested: 57 megatons of TNT The largest bomb ever made: 100 megatons of TNT What About Today?

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Yesterday vs. Today http://www.carloslabs.com/node/16

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V-J Day V-J Day was celebrated Victory in Japan Day After 5 years and the deaths of 72 million humans, WWII ended. Three days after the second atomic bomb, on August 15 th , 1945, Japan surrendered.