3. Pearl Harbor

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Slide 2:

Describe This Event

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Describe This Event

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The United States was Suddenly and Deliberately ATTACKED!

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Identify the reasons and effects of the Attack on Pearl Harbor. Explain why the two signs of a Japanese attack are not responded to. Describe the events that occurred the Day of December 7, 1941. Provide a theory regarding the US governments knowledge regarding the attack. Lesson Objectives

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Empire of Japan (1941)

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Track of Japanese Strike Force

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Reason for the Attack The US demanded that Japan withdraw from China and Indochina. Japan thought that by disabling the Pacific Fleet, the US would be an ineffective fighting force for years to come. The US oil embargo against Japan was hurting their economy.

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Pearl Harbor is a natural harbor located on the southern end of the island of Oahu in the state of Hawaii (Hawaii was still a U.S. territory in 1941). Pearl Harbor The Koolau Mountains were thought to be an excellent protection against an enemy invasion.

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Knowledge of a Possible Attack Hilo Tribune Herald , Sunday November 30, 1941 Exactly one week prior to the attack.

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At 7:20, a Mobile Radar Station noticed 50 or more aircraft on the radar 140 miles from Oahu. An inexperienced officer dismissed the report as US bombers on their way to California. First Sign of an Attack

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Second Sign of an Attack At 7:30, President Roosevelt was informed that Japanese negotiators, in Washington, had been told to stop talks. Knowing that this meant war, Army officials, in Hawaii, were informed. The message which was sent by telegraph doesn’t arrive until 3:00 PM.

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U.S. Under Attack

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At 7:55 AM, the Japanese air force attacks Pearl Harbor in a surprise attack. The American Naval Base was caught off guard. Sunday, Dec. 7, 1941 By the time the U.S. forces could mount a resistance, nearly 2,400 people died in the two different waves of attacks. Because the US planes, at Pearl Harbor, are lined up wingtip to wingtip, they make an easy target for the Japanese pilots.

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A devastating blow to Americans.

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Destruction at Pearl Harbor

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Casualties Japan United States 2,335 servicemen killed 68 civilians killed 1,178 wounded 188 planes 18 ships 64 servicemen killed 29 planes 5 midget submarines

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USS Arizona Hardest hit was the USS Arizona, which was hit by several Japanese bombs and sunk to the bottom of Pearl Harbor. Hit within 10 minutes after attack began, a bomb crashed through the armored deck, igniting its magazine. Nearly 1,177 sailors were killed, only 334 survived.

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USS Arizona Memorial

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Francis “Gabby” Gabreski Born: Oil City, PA (1919) Stationed at Pearl Harbor, Gabreski was one of the few US pilots that made an attempt to intercept Japanese attack planes. He was the top US fighter ace in Europe during World War II (28 downed planes). A German POW July, 1944, to April 1945

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Japanese pilots urge a third strike. If the gasoline tanks at Pearl Harbor were hit, the Pacific Fleet will be out of action for weeks. Superiors say the attack has been successful. They failed to damage any of the aircraft carriers which were absent from the Harbor. A Missed Opportunity

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Americans reacted to the news of the Pearl Harbor attack with anger and fear. Some Americans feared that Japanese Americans would assist an invasion of the mainland. Effects Isoroku Yamamoto The US declared war on Japan. (“The Sleeping Giant was awakened”) Germany and Italy declared war on the US.

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Pearl Harbor Propaganda

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“ December 7, 1941- a date which will live in infamy- the United States was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan .” President F.D. Roosevelt

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Declaration of War

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In the 44 months of war that will follow, the U.S. Navy will sink every one of the Japanese aircraft carriers, battleships, and cruisers in this strike force. Pearl Harbor Facts And when Japan signs the surrender document on September 2, 1945, among the U.S. warships in Tokyo Bay will be a victim of the attack, the U.S.S. West Virginia.

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Historians are split on whether or not President Roosevelt knew about the impending attack, and if he just let it happen to give the U.S. an excuse to go to war. Would the President of the United States sacrifice thousands of lives just for an excuse to enter the war? A Matter of Controversy

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