Narrated-Anxiety Disorders

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Anxiety Disorders:

Anxiety Disorders

Anxiety :

Anxiety Is a state arising from stress or change and frequently emanates from fear Differs from fear in that it is diffuse, internal, and an anticipatory reaction to danger that may be ambiguous or nonspecific The state of anxiety may be disproportionate to the degree of perceived danger The continuum of anxiety ranges from a mild form to a severe form

NORMAL VS ABNORMAL ANXIETY:

NORMAL VS ABNORMAL ANXIETY NORMAL: Protective response that the body uses to mobilize coping resources to maintain homeostasis. NORMAL: Everyone experiences fear in response to the threat of injury, and the production of adrenaline accompanies the “fight or flight” response. NORMAL: Expected to accompany developmental changes and life span issues

NORMAL VS ABNORMAL ANXIETY:

NORMAL VS ABNORMAL ANXIETY Conversely, maladaptive responses or failure to mobilize homeostatic processes often culminate and contribute to formation of: anxiety disorders Overwhelming and enduring anxiety often produce maladaptive responses that globally affect a person’s level of functioning DSM-IV-TR describes anxiety disorders as one of the most common psychiatric conditions

Epidemiology of Anxiety Disorders:

Epidemiology of Anxiety Disorders Affects approximately 15% of the general population at sometime during their lifetime One of the most common reasons for seeking medical and psychiatric tx One in four persons has met criteria for at least one anxiety disorder Prevalence: women (30.5%) men (9.2%) Most prevalent mental disorder in older adults

Causative Perspectives and Theories:

Causative Perspectives and Theories Psychodynamic Theories Existential Theories Cognitive-Behavioral Theories Developmental Theories Biological Theories

Biological Theories :

Biological Theories Neurotransmitter and Neuroendocrine Theories Neuroanatomical Theories Genetic Factors

Global Manifestations of Anxiety Responses:

Global Manifestations of Anxiety Responses Autonomic/Biological -Increased respirations -Shortness of breath -Tachycardia -Diaphoresis -Dizziness -Paresthesias Motor -Tension -Pacing -Tremors -Stuttering -Restlessness

Global Manifestations of Anxiety Responses:

Global Manifestations of Anxiety Responses Behavioral -Rituals -Avoidance -Increased dependence -Clinging -Following (Infant) -Crying (Infant or school-age child) Cognitive/Psychological -Sense of doom -Powerlessness -Intense fear -Vigilance -Rumination -Helplessness -Dissociation -Distortions -Confusion -Overgeneralization

Common Childhood and Adolescent Anxiety Disorders:

Common Childhood and Adolescent Anxiety Disorders Separation Anxiety Disorder Social Phobia Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

Adulthood Anxiety Disorders:

Adulthood Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder Panic Disorder w/or w/out Agoraphobia Agoraphobia Social Phobia Specific Phobia Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Acute Stress Disorder Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

Treatment Considerations:

Treatment Considerations Cognitive Behavioral Systematic Desensitization Progressive Relaxation

Major Medications Used as Anxiolytic Agents:

Major Medications Used as Anxiolytic Agents Benzodiazepines Nonbenzodiazepines SSRI’s Tricyclic Antidepressants MAO Inhibitors Beta-Blockers

Alternative/Complementary Therapies for Anxiety Disorders:

Alternative/Complementary Therapies for Anxiety Disorders Biofeedback Visualization/Imagery Stress Management Meditation Yoga/T’ai chi Hypnosis Exercise Acupuncture