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ROUTEING HERITAGE FOR TOURISM Making Heritage and Cultural Tourism Networks for Socio-Economic Development By Claude Moulin and Priscilla Boniface:

ROUTEING HERITAGE FOR TOURISM Making Heritage and Cultural Tourism Networks for Socio-Economic Development By Claude Moulin and Priscilla Boniface


THE AIMS OF ROUTES AND NETWORKS UNESCO: wider educational, social and cultural European Level: communication General: social and economic aims

The Essence of a Route:

The Essence of a Route A selected journey of progression among a series of elements A strategy for an objectives or series of objectives A course of action, not one immediate and isolated activity

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Shapes: whether a route’s line is linear, is in the shape of a deviation out from a point and back to another, or is circular, it has the characteristic of being along a level of horizontality in terms of type, caliber and level.  each feature has a role and usually the element have an approximate equality

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A mass destination located at the beginning of a route serve to bring tourists to a district A route out from the point can be presented as one that would appeal to visitors A tourist attraction at the end of a route can bring to attention those places on the journey that would not have attract tourist as sole destinations, or their role as accepted entry points to an area.  They serve to connect

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The major aspect of a network is that it is a formulation among groups or individuals possessing a relationship of mutual support and a common objectives, and approximately equal power The dimension of horizontality is the important feature

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If heritage is to be promoted and made more visible, and especially if the motive is to deliver socio-economic and developmental benefits, then routinely it is organizations that lead the initiative Such as UNESCO, EU, Council of Europe (COE) and national and local government bodies.

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Their general work is to decide strategies to achieve objectives and to find vehicles of implementation to be applied from the top, by a trickle-down effect, and often very bureaucratic process, to arrive at the individual situation of a heritage site and its surrounding community along with outside visitors.

The difficulties:

The difficulties Its very long verticality. The vertical line of communication, equal layers of weight, importance and influence are not likely to be represented in the progress down. They are arising from the complexity, variety and power of intervening layers.


FEATURES OF ROUTES AND NETWORKS They can cross boundaries : - geographical - political - cultural - organizational - operational They can make connections : - professional - Social - thematic and promotional towards obtaining financial assistance of advice training, information, and ideas of resource maximization between sectors and disciplines of power, support and solidarity They can show flatter organizational style :

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Routes and networks can be delineated as serving a useful role, as mechanisms for utilising heritage for the direct aims of conservation, cultural preservation and tourism, and for socio-economic development

Their capacities as devices:

Their capacities as devices 1. to allow flexibility of modes of use and a degree of complexity of use 2. To encourage co-operation and adequate communication among the necessary range of participants and stakeholder The benefits perhaps can be perceived as of the most potential help in the situation where resources are limited. A network ought to provide more strength of voice and control.


ROUTES AND NETWORK Routes are the actual itinerary of travel Networks are the background mechanisms to produce them as entities.


USES FOR ROUTES AND NETWORKS ROUTES NETWORKS Tourists For getting somewhere For the journey along the way For wider information access Residents To deliver sources of economic, social and cultural benefit to their door For social contact For exchange information Presenter and stakeholders For reach and presence to be extended commercially, politically and in terms of status For exchange of best practice knowledge For efficient and cost-effective use resources through cooperation For extended opportunities for promotion Place For gaining tourist attention for revenue and support of opinion towards conservation For sharing the load in terms of best conservation For widespread dissemination of information about it for its better care and maintenance


BACKGROUND, IDEAL AND IMPLEMENTATION The first Silk Route The Pilgrimage during Middle Ages Santiago de Compostela Pilgrim Way in 1987 by COE 1970’s France pioneered with “route historique”

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The methodology is to put emphasis on diversity The public sector organizations’ wishes to bring socio-economic development, cultural conservation, revivification, exchange and interaction between communities and groups and delivering education

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The aims of COE routes inline with CDDC: Act as mechanism for networking to serve for the protection and recognition of European Heritage Act as engines of social and economic development, together with cultural development Make cultural tourism a special and widening activity .

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ESTABLISHED ROUTES Santiago de Compostela The European Textile Network Monastic Influence Network Geographical networks can serve as the basis of a route

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The themes forming the subject of COE routes are required specifically in Number I: permit the development of initiatives and examplary and inovative project in the field of cultural tourism Number III: networks are looked at directly and in detail  the concept should be formulated on the basis of research among participating partners. networks are required by the COE to have clear and encompassing programmes and objectives, to have firm plans for funding and operation  to show legal aspect, evaluation and report to COE Number II: addressed particular necessities for cultural tourism projects, and with an overt and stated link to sustainable cultural development

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1992: protection of cultural itineraries 1993: santiago de Compostela was the first itinerary to be registered 1997: COE co-operate with Grand Duchy of Luxembourg to establish the Institute of Cultural Itineraries in Luxembourg

The Success of Routeing Heritage Sites:

The Success of Routeing Heritage Sites Chemins du Baroque 1992: 15.000 visitors 1993: 35.000 visitors 1996: 60.000 visitors Santiago de Compostela 1900 1930 1950 1981 2004 2006 24.120 38.270 55.553 82.404 92.298 93.458


CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Cultural and heritage routes and networks for tourism reveal a central irony because of the horizontality characteristic and the situation emerge is a cruciform shape model, whereby a top-down style is used to impose an ‘across’ technique


CONCLUSION cont’d The ideal is clearly of linear intercommunication among participants of routes to form a network of support. Need monitoring and investigation To gain the optimum from the route idea, more networking is needed between tourism industry and heritage industry. Our environment is interdependent, and culture is very fragile if not cared for through an integrated approach

Conclusion cont’d:

Conclusion cont’d Despite the fact that routes, itineraries, and networks have long been part of society’s general activity, public sector organization (UNESCO and COE) giving a lead with routes and itineraries, a new form cultural and heritage tourism. Whether international, local, and regional can dovetail and work? The fact: World Tourism Organization and International Office of Social Tourism do not fulfill the objectives of individual regions. Information is crucial to the whole process of routes and their installation and operation Need for adequate research into tourists’ opinions about routes.


ROUTES AND NETWORK: Future Action The research and identification of: Tourists’ reactions to routes as tourism products Impact and outcome (beneficial, and any harmful) of routs and networks and especially whether results are of heritage being conserved and socio-economic development being achieved Whether balance and fairness are being achieved among network participants Whether ‘weaker’ members of networks have adequate support and are permitted enough ‘voice’ Whether commercial and competitive imperatives mean that private-sector representatives and tourism operators do not feel disposed to network Whether existing formulae and methodologies for establishing routes and networks need any alteration, towards maximum efficacy What key components and core elements of success exist for routes and networks and whether a model of general applicability can be identified


Reflection Lessons learned routeing heritage sites has become one of the ways for conservation Need lots of effort and co-operation between international and regional organization especially by minimizing the organizational structure of responsibilities Communities contribution are also essential to maintain the sustainability Monitoring and evaluation are needed

Reflection :

Reflection Difficulties encountered Need more data (visitor statistic and the routes) Lack of information about European history New Insight Involvement from international organizations to local communities are very important to gain fundamental support in developing and maintaining heritage sites routes Related Experience Need more study on how to routeing heritage sites in Asia especially in Indonesia

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