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Instructional Strategy for Moderate to Severe Disabilities:Direct Instruction : 

Instructional Strategy for Moderate to Severe Disabilities:Direct Instruction Kimberly Staggs-Clark Azusa Pacific University SPED 501

What is Direct Instruction? : 

What is Direct Instruction? “Direct Instruction is a model for teaching that emphasizes well-developed and carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments and clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks” (National Institute for Direct Instruction).

Direct Instruction(DI) : 

Direct Instruction(DI) Teacher’s of moderate to severe students are still required to follow standards. As teacher’s our main job is to teach these students’ skills to succeed in their everyday life whether it be in the classroom or out in the community. DI facilitates so that all students can be taught. DI also is specifically designed to enhance academic learning time. “Direct instruction takes learners through the steps of learning systematically, helping them see both the purpose and the result of each step” (Education Commission of the States) “All details of instruction must be controlled to minimize the chance of students' misinterpreting the information being taught and to maximize the reinforcing effect of instruction” (National Institute of Direct Instruction).

English-Language Arts California Content Standards : 

English-Language Arts California Content Standards For Example: My student is working on Standard 13/FPI 13.2. Standard 13- Locate information by using a variety of consumer, workplace, and public documents (English-Language Arts FPI, 2009). FPI 13.2-Student will compile list from recipe (English-Language Arts FPI, 2009).

Why English-Language Arts Content Standard 13? : 

Why English-Language Arts Content Standard 13? It promotes independence. It promotes reading (regardless of ability level). It helps students learn about cooking. It helps a student understand the significance of a list. It helps a student understand the reason for a grocery store. And this concept also correlates with the math FPI because when the recipe is compiled, the student must go to the store; while at the store, the student must understand the concept of exchanging money.

Why Math Content Standard 5.0? : 

Why Math Content Standard 5.0? Learning how to use money is an important tool for anybody. It is also a skill the student will need to know because he or she may come in contact with it at any given moment. Learning to recognize money is the first step in learning how to use money and promote independence. Unfortunately, in a moderate to severe classroom there are several different ability levels which is why it is important for the teacher to use direct instruction when teaching money so there isn’t any confusion.

Slide 8: 

Looking at the standards it seems easy to make a lesson plan to develop these skills but given the different ability levels in the classroom it is a little harder.

Steps to teaching money to a Presymbolic Learners : 

Steps to teaching money to a Presymbolic Learners As stated by Snell (2006), “There is very little research on teaching math skills to students at the presymbolic level” (p.512). Presymbolic students can learn beginning money concepts: (Snell, 2006). The first thing is to make sure the student can recognize money from objects that are nonmoney (Snell, 2006). One way to instruct this type of learner is by DI- Explicit Teaching. Explicit instruction is a sequence of supports: setting a purpose for learning telling students what to do (Instructional Strategies Online, 2009) showing them how to do it (Instructional Strategies Online, 2009) guiding their hands-on application of the new learning (Instructional Strategies Online 2009)

DI for Math : 

DI for Math A good way to get the student interested is by showing him or her a video on coins. This can be done at school but replicated at home. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N5cI7qWYZO0&feature=related After the song, the teacher goes over each coin with the student. This also can be done by a parent. Then the teacher will show examples of the worksheet that will be handed to the student. The teacher will send the same worksheets home so the student can have repeated practice. The teacher will give the student a physical penny, nickel, dime, quarter and dollar as well as several worksheets on coins, starting with the penny. The teacher will go over the penny several times asking for the student to repeat it’s name. The teacher will have examples to show the student so there is no confusion.

DI for Math Continued... : 

DI for Math Continued... The teacher will explain that the student must color the penny brown on the worksheet. Then put the correct coin with the appropriate worksheet. The teacher will go over one worksheet with the child side by side. The teacher will stay by the students side to ensure that the student understands the directions. Once the penny is completed, worksheets for the nickel, dime, quarter and dollar will then be distributed and the instructions will be repeated the same way as the penny worksheet. Worksheets on money: http://www.moneyinstructor.com/wsp/pages.asp The worksheets and directions will be given to parent so it can be replicated at home.

Steps to teaching PreSymbolic English-Language Arts : 

Steps to teaching PreSymbolic English-Language Arts “Students who are at an early symbolic level may be able to use picture/word combinations to begin developing phrase, sentences, simple stories, or reports” (Snell 2006, p. 511). One way to help presymbolic students compile a list from a recipe is by using Communicate: Symwriter. This program lets parents or teachers compile picture symbol/ word combinations through a computer program.

Communicate: SymWriter : 

Communicate: SymWriter “Communicate: SymWriter is a symbol-supported word processor that any writer, regardless of literacy levels, can use to author documents” (enable mart technology). “Teacher will teach student to click on the pictures in the bank and complete the sentence” (Snell 2006, p.511). The sentence started will be “Things I need for my recipe” The teacher will help print out the list.

Conclusion : 

Conclusion Although there are several different strategies that are used throughout the day in a classroom, direct instruction is one of the most commonly used strategy. Direct instruction uses the steps of learning systematically. It helps the students see the purpose and the reason for each step (Education Commission of the States). “When teachers explain exactly what students are expected to learn, and demonstrate the steps needed to accomplish a particular academic task, students are likely to use their time more effectively and to learn more” (Education Commission of the States).

References : 

References California Content Standards for English-Language Arts Performance Functional Indicators. Retrieved from Los Angeles Unified School District: http://www.lausd.k12.ca.us/Carlson_Hospital_School/PDF%20files/ELAContStand_Mod_.pdf. California Content Standards for Math. Retrieved from Riverside County of Education: http://www.rcoe.k12.ca.us/materials/SPED_Part3.pdf. Communicator: SymWriter. Retrieved from Enable Mart Technology: http://www.enablemart.com/Communicate-Symwriter. Direct Instruction. Retrieved from Educational Commission of the States: http://education.calumet.purdue.edu/vockell/edPsybook/Edpsy2/edpsy2_direct.htm. Instructional Strategies Online. Retrieved from Saskatoon Public Schools: http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/de/pd/instr/experi.html. National Institute for Direct Instruction: Retrieved from http://www.nifdi.org/15/about-di. Snell, M.E., & Brown, F. (2006). Instruction of Students with Severe Disabilities., (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J: Pearson.

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