CIS6108_Lawler_FinalPPT.pptx

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Business Process Redesign & Organizational Resistance:

Business Process Redesign & Organizational Resistance The Complex Challenges to BPR Implementation

Business Process Redesign Overview:

Business Process Redesign Overview Business Process Redesign (BPR) definitions: History of BPR can be dated back to early 1900’s; The Principles of Scientific Management Frederick Taylor A pervasive but challenging tool for transforming organizations Rethinking & redesigning of the business process for obtaining sustained improvement in quality, cost, service, lead time, flexibility and innovation ( Abdi, Zarei, Vaisya, & Parvin , 2011) A medium through which benefits are achieved through application of information technology and restructuring of business processes

Business Process Redesign Continued:

Business Process Redesign Continued Activity Flow – Oriented Approach Most commonly used approach in BPR Known as “workflow” representations C ommunication Flow – Oriented Approach Explicitly show how communication interactions take place in a business process (Kock, Danesh, & Komiak, 2008) (Kock, Danesh, & Komiak, 2008)

Roadblocks to BPR Implementation:

Roadblocks to BPR Implementation Problem Identification People will resist change in process if they feel the process is “unbroken” Radical or incremental problem Management Support Is management supporting BPR projects? Has management clearly defined goals for success? Employee Resistance Are key stakeholders involved? Does the budget allow for training, time to adapt, incentives? Business Process Rigidity Systematic resistance to any change Prior investments & legal regulations

Expect to Incur Employee Resistance:

Expect to Incur Employee Resistance Force – Field Resistance (Kurt Lewin, 1947) Driving forces Restraining forces Resistance should be accepted as a “given,” so that the educator can predict and plan for effectively dealing with inevitable resistance. (Tallman, 1992) Passive resistance Incremental change Radical change People fear change Transition from the present to the unknown (Beaudan , 2006)

Employee Resistance & Habits:

Employee Resistance & Habits Habits are hard to change Habit defined A “learned sequences of acts that have become automatic responses to specific cues, and are functional in obtaining certain goals or end-states” (Verplanken and Aarts, 1999, p. 104) Habits are difficult to control Habits are mentally efficient To understand how to disrupt incumbent system habits and encourage the development of new ones, it is important to first have a clear understanding of what habit is. (Polites & Karahanna, 2013) (Polites & Karahanna, 2013)

Employee Resistance to Change:

Employee Resistance to Change Change is difficult business (Beaudan , 2006) Most change plans fail to adequately anticipate internal resistance (Beaudan, 2006) Change fatigue and the “stall” (Beaudan , 2006)

The Ensuing Change Curve:

The Ensuing Change Curve

Why am I Incurring Organization Resistance?:

Why am I Incurring Organization Resistance? (Beaudan , 2006)

Resistance is Normal:

Resistance is Normal Organizations are compose of individuals The I in Organizational Factors to Resistance (Tallman, 1992)

Conclusions to Employee Resistance:

Conclusions to Employee Resistance Employee resistance will occur The failure rate of BPR projects is reported to be as high as 70% (Hlupic, Choudrie & Patel, 1999) Make sure the BPR initiative includes that fact in the plan! The reasons & levels of resistance are diverse as employees Concluding Thoughts on Employee Resistance

References:

References Abdi, N., Zarei, B., Vaisya, J., & Parvin, B. (2011). Innovation models and business process redesign. International Business & Management , 3 (2), 147-152. doi:10.3968/j.ibm.1923842820110302.095 Beaudan, E. (2006). Making change last: How to get beyond change fatigue. Ivey Business Journal , 70 (3), 1-7. Broadbent, M., Weill, P., Clair, D.T., & Kearney, A.T. (1999). The implications of information technology infrastructure for business process redesign. MIS Quarterly , 23 (2), 159- 182. Hlupic, V., Choudrie, J., & Patel, N. (2000). Business process re-engineering (bpr): The rebus approach. Cognition, Technology & Work, 2 (2), 89-96. Kock, N., Danesh, A., & Komiak, P. (2008). A discussion and test of a communication flow optimization approach for business process redesign. Knowledge & Process Management , 15 (1), 72-85. doi:10.1002/kpm.301

References:

References Kock, N., Verville, J., Danesh-Pajou, A., & DeLuca, D. (2009). Communication flow orientation in business process modeling and its effect on redesign success: Results from a field study. Decision Support Systems, 46 (2), 562-575. doi.org/10.1016/j.dss.2008.10.00 Polites, G. L., & Karahanna, E. (2013). The embeddedness of information systems habits in organizational and individual level routines: Development and disruption. MIS Quarterly , 37 (1), 221-246. Tallman, D.E. (1992). Adult education perspectives for judicial education. Athens, GA: Georgia Center for Continuing Education. Verplanken, B., & Aarts, H. (1999). Habit, attitude, and planned behavior: Is habit an empty construct or an interesting case of automaticity? European Review of Social Psychology, 10, 101-134. Wren, D.A. (2011). The centennial of frederick w. taylor's the principles of scientific management: A retrospective commentary. Journal of Business & Management , 17 (1), 11-22.

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