2 INTRODUCTION TO GENDER

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GENDER AND GENDER BASED VIOLENCE:

GENDER AND GENDER BASED VIOLENCE

Questions to meditate over…:

Questions to meditate over… WHAT IS GENDER? WHAT IS SEX What is the difference between gender and sex? How does this impact our day to day life?

Activity 1:

Activity 1 A couple is struggling to conceive a child. They go to the witchdoctor who tells them they will have a child, but only after they have decided which sex they want it to be. Pick the sex of the child and write on a piece of paper why did you choose that sex.

Slide4:

ALWAYS BEING A GIRL

What is Gender?:

What is Gender? Is the social construction of roles, responsibilities and behavior patterns assigned to men and women, boys and girls in a given society in time. Through process of socialization society provides gender identity to males and females Differs from culture to culture Changes in time

GENDER ROLES:

GENDER ROLES Gender roles are not natural roles: boys and girls are systematically taught to be different from each other. Socialization into gender roles begins early in life. This includes learning to be different in terms of, for example: appearance and dress, activities and pastimes, behavior, emotions that we show , responsibilities , intellectual pursuits etc . Gender roles are learnt and therefore can be unlearnt. They are not unchangeable . Gender roles are those that define what is considered appropriate for men and women within the society, social roles and division of labour .

What is Sex?:

What is Sex? Is the biological differentiation between women and men Is Natural Is Permanent

What are Sex Roles ?:

What are Sex Roles ? These are roles determined by our biological endowment They are natural roles They can not be interchanged Males release sperm Females conceive and give birth Females breastfeed

GENDER AND SEX:

GENDER AND SEX Gender Sex - Socially constructed Biologically defined - Differs between and within cultures Determined by birth - Includes variables identifying differences in roles , responsibilities,opportunities , needs and constraints Universal - Can be Changed Unchangeable

Bruce Jenner:

Bruce Jenner

All American wonder boy, Olympic champion:

All American wonder boy, Olympic champion

Family man:

Family man

Now :

Now

From Bruce to Caitlyn:

From Bruce to Caitlyn

Slide15:

Gender is above and beyond but inclusive of , sex . One of the most important characteristics of gender is that it is variable and changing. It differs within and between cultures/religions / regions/generations .

Gender equality:

Gender equality In a society the gender relations may be equal or unequal. It is an undeniable truth that to realize complete human potential there has to be gender equality. This involves empowerment in gender relations at personal, collective and societal level .

Gender equality:

Gender equality Refers to equal chance for women, men, girls and boys in allocation and access to resources and services.

Gender Equity:

Gender Equity Refers to fairness or level playing field, where fair treatment is accorded to both men and women. Equity sometimes calls for affirmative action to allow fair play, especially where two groups are competing for same resources and one has an advantage over the other

Gender Issues:

Gender Issues Are specific consequences of inequality, inequity and differential treatment between women and men. Include biases or discriminatory behaviour towards individuals on basis of sex or social roles ascribed to them i.e denial of a girl-child education in favour of boy-child on grounds that a girl will get married & be an investment to another family or increasing men’s entry fees to an entertainment club on basis that they are more financially empowered. Gender issues affect women & men in society & have an impact on development

Gender gaps / disparities:

Gender gaps / disparities Refers to systematic differences in outcome that men and women achieve in an individual sector. It is imbalances/differences that arise due to social assigned gender roles/issues i.e gap between the number of enrolled male nurses vs women nurses; number of female pilots vs male pilots; piloting is viewed as masculine and not meant for women.

What is Gender Mainstreaming?:

What is Gender Mainstreaming? Is a strategy for achieving gender equality Strategy to end gender blindness in devt process. Ensures women & men, girls & boys have equal access to & control over resources, opportunities & benefits at all levels.

Gender determines:

Gender determines Power differences between males and females in any culture Roles Responsibilities Expectations Privileges Rights Limitations

Slide23:

Power is directly related to choice. The more power one has, the more choices available. The less power one has, fewer choices are available. Underpowered people have fewer choices and are therefore more vulnerable to abuse.

Perpetrators' can have “real” or “preconceived” power. For example;:

Perpetrators' can have “real” or “preconceived” power. For example; Social – peer pressure, bullying, teacher, parents Economic – the perpetrator controls money or access to goods/services/money/favors, sometimes spouse or parent Political – elected leaders, discriminatory policies and laws Physical – strength, size, use of weapons, controlling access or security, soldiers, police, robbers Gender based

Slide27:

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE A FORM OF GBV

Slide28:

WHAT IS GENDER BASED VIOLENCE?

GENDER BASED VIOLENCE:

GENDER BASED VIOLENCE Gender based violence involves the abuse of power. Unequal power relationships are exploited or abused GBV is an act of power, anger and dominance over another because they are seen helpless. Rape is an act of power, anger and dominance over another. Sex is a weapon used to gain control.

GENDER BASED VIOLENCE:

GENDER BASED VIOLENCE GBV not only violates a survivors integrity, but also their sense of safety and control over life Perpetrators do not care about the victim’s well-being or feelings. Even when the victim is sick or pregnant, the perpetrator does not think rationally during the attack. They do not see the victim as a human being but as an object to dominate.

DO MEN GET ABUSED?:

DO MEN GET ABUSED? WHEN MEN GET ABUSED WHAT IS THE REACTION FROM THE PUBLIC?

CLIP ON GENDER BASED VIOLENCE EXPERIMENT:

CLIP ON GENDER BASED VIOLENCE EXPERIMENT

Some traditional and emerging forms of Gender Based Violence:

Some traditional and emerging forms of Gender Based Violence FGM Forced Male circumcision Child Marriages Trafficking of women and girls for sex trade, forced prostitution, and sex tourism that have become the focus of internationally organized crimes. Cyber crime-Pedophiles

Statistics:

Statistics Average of 249 survivors per month. Ave. 8 new cases each day (SV & PV) 40% Children, 57% Women, 3% Men. 84% of GVRC cases are of sexual violence while 16% are physical violence cases. 98% of survivors of sexual violence report no condom was used.-Risk of HIV/Pregnancies/STIs 64% of perpetrators are known to the survivor.

GBV at the work-place:

GBV at the work-place Sexual harassment Promotions/transfers/employment/termination of contracts-more so in small and medium out Power relations- One spouse/party wanting to take and maintain control over the other Levels of strain and stress amongst families, and especially work life balance- demands to meet family obligations Financial Insecurity Poor Parenting/Absent Parents/Weak role Modeling fits-on condition of Sexual favours

Causes:

Causes Personality traits- Sudden bursts of anger, poor/low self esteem, poor impulse control-these must be managed within the self Decision making processes especially Financial conflicts –who should control resources and especially money & Property Improper communication avenues; inappropriate ways of solving marital disagreements & family affairs. Unmet/unclear needs and expectations of the other.

Causes Cont…:

Causes Cont… Childhood socialization- Bringing up children in an environment where they learn that conflicts are resolved through physical violence, shouting etc( both as a victim or perpetrator) as well as enforced behavior (teach children self control and dialogue Poverty and physical space-crowded, dark, isolated spaces Poor services-Transport system, access to water, schools etc-Distance and environment

Simply put…..:

Simply put….. GBV is a crime (Violation of HR) Superior gender/position violates inferior( Men/Women, Teacher/Pupil, Older/Younger, Break down in social systems, structures and practices-loss of our value system Breakdown in family systems Violence to maintain status quo Cultural practices

Effects of GBV :

Effects of GBV Physical harm Long term psychological effects, including suicidal tendencies, mental illness, self harm, depression, anxiety. Medical conditions and infections-include STIs, HIV, Urine and stool incontinence, Fistulas, etc Loss of productive lifestyles and opportunities, including Loss of livelihoods

Effects Cont…:

Effects Cont… Redirecting income to medical and psychosocial support-paying medical bills, reconstructive surgery, other than education , reproductive health etc Loss of dignity and self esteem, including self worthiness Vicarious trauma on the part of the professionals who hear the victims/survivors cases, thus leading to hyper vigilance, nightmares, intrusive thoughts and other such occurrences. Burnout.

Mitigating GBV:

Mitigating GBV Redefine the role of the society and specifically the family Multi sectoral approach to prevention and management Policy and practices influencing Policy and law enforcement Family life and peace initiatives and education

What Can Each of Us Do?:

What Can Each of Us Do? Report Violence!!!! Speak out publicly against GBV Take action personally against domestic violence when a neighbor, a co-worker, a friend, or a family member is involved or being abused. Encourage your neighborhood watch or block association to become as concerned with watching out for domestic violence as with burglaries and other crimes.

What can we do? As TSC?:

What can we do? As TSC? Reach out to support someone whom you believe is a victim of domestic violence and/or talk with a person you believe is being abusive. Refer to mandated authorities-Hospitals/police Share contents of the TSC circular-report and be each other’s keeper-FOCUS ON CHILD not adults Support functional guidance and counseling Role Model

IN CONCLUSION:

IN CONCLUSION Violence will never be an answer Violence can never be acceptable, Everyone deserves to feel valued, respected and safe GBV is not out there with them, It is here, with us so lets take action individually

THE END:

THE END THANK YOU AND GOD BLESS YOU

DISTRIBUTION OF CIVIL SERVICE WORKFORCE BY JOB CATEGORIES AND SEX, JUNE 2010 :

DISTRIBUTION OF CIVIL SERVICE WORKFORCE BY JOB CATEGORIES AND SEX, JUNE 2010 Job groups Female Male Total % Female P and above 810 2,392 3,202 25.3 J-N 16,822 23,684 40,506 41.5 H and below 20,581 35,225 55,806 36.9 Total 38,213 61,301 99,514 38.4

Slide61:

Econ.Emp cont. In Parastatals women are 39.2% compared to 60.8% men. Women in senior positions less than 30% of workforce in that cadre. Women mainly positioned in lower ranks: clerical, secretarial and messengerial positions.

Econ.Emp cont. :

Econ.Emp cont. In Local Government women are less than 10% of top- management. Majority of women (76%) are low-level staff: sweepers in offices, markets and revenue collectors in bus-parks .

SO HOW DO WE ACHIEVE GENDER EQUALITY?:

SO HOW DO WE ACHIEVE GENDER EQUALITY? Gender equality cannot be achieved unless men and boys are convinced of the importance of equal opportunities for women and girls . The involvement of men is key to the success of the gender-equality movement . Gender equality cannot be achieved unless men and boys are convinced of the importance of equal opportunities for women and girls . " Policies alone can't do it - we need to start looking for ways to engage boys and men so that they start to see the value in equal opportunities for girls . The cost of not working with boys and young men is that programmes and policies [ working ] with young women and girls will continue to come up against the barrier of male power and expectations , structures and beliefs that benefit men over women

WHAT IS GENDER BASED VIOLENCE?:

WHAT IS GENDER BASED VIOLENCE?

Slide65:

If a boy sees his father treating his sisters and mother with respect , he will pick up on it ; if he sees his father beating his mother up , there's a much higher chance that he too will be abusive

Kenya: Violence Against Men On the Rise - Survey :

Kenya: Violence Against Men On the Rise - Survey A new survey released by National Crime and Research Centre shows that cases of gender violence against men have increased in the last one year . The report which targeted 819 respondents (656 female and 163 male ) in 13 counties ( Northeastern counties were not included ) said current prevalence was 48.6 percent for men and 37.7 percent for women . Kiambu, Busia, Vihiga , Mombasa counties are reported to have exhibited the highest rate of the gender violence against men .

Slide68:

NCRC Principal Researcher Stephen Muteti says this is consistent with the common belief about increased vulnerability of men as reported in the media. " More men than women reported GBV to be bodily harm inflicted by woman on man and psychological harm inflicted by woman on man . This reflects a gender bias in which women trivialize the experience of men and cultural change in which men admit being victimized by women ," he said during release of the report .

Slide69:

The most common forms of gender violence mentioned by both male and female respondents were inflicting bodily harm (73.8 percent and 68.9 percent among and female and male ), sexual assaults on women and children e.g . rape , digital finger etc (41.2 percent and 41.0 percent among female and male ) and verbal abuse (36.5 percent and 34.8 percent ). Other forms of GBV identified by respondents include : economic deprivation/financial restrictions , psychological humiliation , early marriages for girls below 18 years of age , defilement , forced marriages , sexual deprivation and discrimination at work or by in-laws

Slide70:

Kilifi (97.9pc), Kisii (85.7 pc ), Machakos (71.4 pc ) Mombasa (66.7 pc ) and Kisii (64.9 pc ) ranked as the top five in prevalence of rape Samburu ranked lowest with 7.9% of cases reported . Machakos (90.5 pc ), Migori (86.6 pc ), Meru (45.8 pc ), Kisii (64.3 pc ), and Busia (61.5 pc ) ranked highest in domestic violence ; Kilifi had the lowest (12.5 pc ) Cases of reporting were still found to be low . Only 15.2percent and 16.7 of male respondents who had ever been sexually violated had reported or had someone else report the act of sexual violence . The report found most victims had reported to the police and provincial administration but cites their understanding of GBV being inadequate .

MPS BEHAVING BADLY:

MPS BEHAVING BADLY Imenti Central MP Gideon Mwiti has been accused of assaulting and raping a 29-year old married woman while another MP Elisha Busenei of Turbo was accused by Taita Taveta Woman Representative Joyce Lay of sexual harassment while on a trip to Japan. Mwiti has been accused of molesting the woman at his private office in Westlands on Saturday night when she had gone for a business meeting . The woman is currently admitted to the Nairobi Women’s Hospital .

WHAT ARE THE FORMS OF GBV:

WHAT ARE THE FORMS OF GBV Physical Violence : Any forceful or violent physical behavior that causes actual harm. It includes plucking out the hair, biting, choking, kicking, slapping, burning and shoving. Psychological/Emotional Violence: Any threat to do bodily harm to a partner, a child, a family member, friends or oneself. It involves not only hurt and anger, but also fear and degradation. Socio-cultural violence : for example FGM, widow inheritance

Slide73:

Sexual Violence: Sexual violence entails non consensual sexual act or behavior. It includes marital rape, gang rape, rape, attempted rape and defilement. Rape and other forms of violence are about power and control; where the perpetrator uses their position of authority to oppress the vulnerable victim Economic Violence: Limit money to conduct duties or needs, not allow woman to work, unequal employment payments, salary of woman belongs to the husband

TACTICS USED BY ABUSERS TO MANIPULATE SURVIVORS AND EXERT THEIR POWER :

TACTICS USED BY ABUSERS TO MANIPULATE SURVIVORS AND EXERT THEIR POWER Dominance -Make decisions for you and the family to feel in charge of the relationship. Humiliation -Erodes your self esteem to make you feel powerless. Isolation -Cutting you off from the outside world to increase your dependence on him/her.

Slide75:

Threats -Threatens to kill you, your children, other family members or even pets to keep you from leaving or to scare them into dropping charges Intimidation- These are designed to scare you into submission. Such tactics include making threatening looks or gestures, smashing things in front of you, destroying property, hurting your pets or putting weapons on display. Denial and blame -They blame their abuse on a bad childhood, a bad day and even on the survivors of their abuse.

Outcomes of sexual violence:

Outcomes of sexual violence Sexual violence can have profound negative effects, in terms of morbidly and mortality, on the lives of the survivors and their families. The effects are remarkably similar across the world, though they manifest in different ways.

Slide79:

THE END. QUESTIONS? SUGGESTIONS? THANK YOU

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