Spanish Grammar Book

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Libro de Español la gramática.:

Libro de Español la gramática. Karen Smith

Table of Contents:

Table of Contents Nacionalidades (Nationalities ) ................................................................................................................. 3-6 Verbos de cambio (Stem Changing Verbs) ............................................................................................. 7 Para ......................................................................................................................................................... 8 Adjetivo ( Adjectives) .............................................................................................................................. 9 Direct Object Pronouns ........................................................................................................................... 10 Indirect Object Pronouns (Pronombres objeto indirecto ) ....................................................................... 11 Object pronoun placement (Colocación pronombre objeto ) ....................................................................12 Ser vs Estar .............................................................................................................................................. 13 - isimo and g/c/z ........................................................................................................................................ 14 Verbs like gustar ...................................................................................................................................... 15 Affirmative and Negative .......................................................................................................................... 16 Pero Vs Sino ............................................................................................................................................ 17 Dop/Iop/Se ............................................................................................................................................... 18 Reflexive Verbs ………………………………………………………………………………………… 19 Tu Commands affirmative+Negative+irregulars ...……………………………………………………… 20 Los adverbios-mente …………………………………………………………………………………… 21 Deber+other modal verbs …………………………………………………………………………......... 22 Past participles as adjectives ……………………………………………………………………………. 23 Preterite ………………………………………………………………………………………………….24 Present progressive……………………………………………………………........................................25

Nacionalidades de México Y Centro América:

Nacionalidades de México Y Centro América Mexicano /a ----> México Guatemalteco /a ---> Guatemala Hondureño /a ---> Honduras Salvadoreño /a ---> El Salvador Nicaragüense ---> Nicaragua Costarricense ---> Costa Rica Panameño /a ---> Panamá

Nacionalidad de El Caribe:

Nacionalidad de El Caribe Cubano/ a → Cuba Dominicano/ a → Dominican Republic Puertorriqueño /a → Puerto Rico

Nacionalidad de Sudamérica :

Nacionalidad de Sudamérica Venezolano /a ---> Venezuela Colombiano /a ---> Colombia Ecuatoriano /a ---> Ecuador Peruano /a ---> Perú Paraguayo /a ---> Paraguay Boliviano /a ---> Bolivia Chileno/ a ---> Chile Argentino /a ---> Argentina Uruguayo /a ---> Uruguayo

Nacionalidad de Europa Y África:

Nacionalidad de Europa Y África Espanol /a ---> Espana Guineano/ a ---> New Guinea

Stem Changing Verbs:

Stem Changing Verbs

Para:

Para Para is used as the spanish preposition “for”. Vive para comer (He lives for eating)

Adjectives:

Adjectives If adjectives end in an “e” or vowel you add “s” ie: Alto → Altos If Adjective ends in a consonant add “es” ie: Popular → Populares If nationality is referred to a nationality it must match. ie: las muchachas venezolana los muchachos venezolano

Pronoun Placement:

Pronoun Placement 1. Attach the pronoun to infinitive 2. attach the pronoun to a progressive tense 3. attach the pronoun to an affirmative command 4. Place the pronoun before a conjugated verb. Ie: Voy a comerlo. ----> Add accent mark Estoy comiendolo Comelo ----> When adding a syllable to word. Lo voy a comer

Direct Object Pronouns:

Direct Object Pronouns It answers what is being verbed. Ex: Cecillia esta tomando fotos!

Indirect Object Pronouns (Pronombres Objeto indirecto):

Indirect Object Pronouns (Pronombres Objeto indirecto) These answer the question to whom or for whom. Me (to me) Te (to you) le (to him, her, formal you) Nos (to us) os (to you all) les (to them, to you all) He gives the book to her. (Se le da al libro de su.) IOP: Su

Ser y Estar:

Ser y Estar Ser is used for hour, day ,date, origin, occupation, nationality, political affiliation, material, possession, relationship, expressions, event location, qualities. Estar is used for location, state or condition, idiomatic expressions, progressive tenses.

Isimo and g/c/z :

Isimo and g/c/z Adding isimo is the extreme of the adjective. To add isimo 1) Remove final vowel. 2)Add isimo. 3)Make sure it agrees with number and gender. C -> Qu Blanco -> Blanquisimo G -> Gu Largo -> Larguisimo z -> C Feliz-> Felicisimo

Verbs like gustar:

Verbs like gustar Instead of using gustar, you use Gusta when it is singular, and gustan when it is plural. Me gusta pollo. Me gustan pollo.

Affirmative and Negative words:

Affirmative and Negative words Affirmative: alguno (any) siempre (always) también ( also) algún (some) algo (something) alguien (someone) Negative: nada : (nothing) nunca (never) nadie ( no-one) ningún ( anything) tampoco (nor) To make a sentence Negative add a “No” before the verb. Ex: Ella Habla Inglés→ Ella no habla inglés. When the answer to a question is negative, it requires two negatives. Hablo Ud. Espanol? No. No hablo Espanol

Pero vs Sino:

Pero vs Sino Pero and sino are used for the word but. Pero is used to join two contrasting ideas when the second does not negate the first. No soy española, pero hablo bien el idioma. (I'm not Spanish, but I speak the language well.) Sino us used when the second sentence negates or connects the first. Hoy no voy a estudiar biología, sino matemáticas. (Today I'm not going to study biology, but rather math.)

Dop/Iop/Se:

Dop/Iop/Se Dop me te lo la nos os los las Iop me te le nos os les Se Me Te Se Nos Os Se

Reflexive Verbs:

Reflexive Verbs Used when the subject and object are the same Yo lavo me nos te os se se

PowerPoint Presentation:

Affirmative Negative Irregular AR verbs: Add the 3rd person singular ending -a to the stem (Comprar) Compra la camisa. (Buy the shirt.) -ER verbs: Add the 3rd person singular ending -e to the stem (Aprender) ¡ Aprende español! (Learn Spanish!) -IR verbs: Add the 3rd person singular ending -e to the stem (Escribir) ¡ Escribe el ensayo! (Write the essay!) Make sure to have a no or negative in front of the verb. Haz Ve Pon Sal Se Ten Ven Tu Commands Affirmative, Irregular, and Negative.

Los Adverbios-mente:

Los Adverbios-mente Most Spanish Adverbs are formed by adding -mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective corresponds to -ly in English When two adverbs modify the same verb, only the second one takes the -mente Adverb is the same as the feminine singular form of the adjective. Adjective Feminine Form Adverb Meaning Claro Constante Dificil Perfecto Alegre Clara Perfecta Alegremente Claramente Constantemente Dificilmente Perfectamente Alegremente Clear Constant Difficult Perfect Cheerful

Deber y other Modal verbs:

Deber y other Modal verbs *conjugate and pair the modal verb with an infinitive to get a new meaning Ir + a + infinitive (going to do something) Poder + infinitive (are able to do something) Querer + infinitive (want able to do something) Deber+ infinitive (should do something) Tener que + infinitive (to have to do something) Soler + infinitive (to be accustomed to…)

Past Participles as adjectives:

Past Participles as adjectives Drop -ar ending and add -ado. Drop -er or -ir and add -ido Ex:La puerta esta cerrada. (The door is closed) El restaurante esta abierto. (The restaurant is open)

Preterite:

Preterite A definite time in the past has a beginning las expresiones para el uso (trigger words)- Ayer, Anoche, El ano pasado, La semana pasada, Ante ayer Ar Er ir -e -aste -o -amos -asteis -aron -i -iste -io -imos -isteis -ieron -i -iste -io -imos -isteis -ieron

Present Progressive:

Present Progressive The present progressive is only used to describe an action that is in the process of taking place. It is not used for future actions. Pronoun Placement- Put pronouns before the conjugated form of estar or attach them to the end of the present participle. Stem Changing. E->I (Pedir-> Pidiemo) O->U(Decir->Diciendo)

Citations:

Citations www. studyspanish.com www.g rammar.spanishtexas.org Senora Linares’ notes.