water crisis in Pakistan & the future of pakistan economy

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Water Crisis & future of Pakistan Economy:

Water Crisis & future of Pakistan Economy

Group Members :

Group Members Mohammad Asghar Khan 03348474099 [email protected] Sajjad Ahmed Khan

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“Or the water of the garden will run off underground so that thou wilt never be able to find it." Al- Kahf [18:41] “And Allah has created every animal from water” An-Noor [24:45] “And We send down water from the sky according to (due) measure, and We cause it to soak in the soil; and We certainly are able to drain it off (with ease)”. Al- Mumenoon [23:18]

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Annual Average water in Pakistan TOTAL WATER : 141.67 MAF Agriculture use: 97 % Domestic & Industries use: 3% Water lost,unused:36 MAF

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The importance of water 80% of the human body is made up of water. Water is crucial element of our food and materials 75% of the earth’s surface is covered with water. only 3%, is fresh. Only1% of the water is available for human consumption . Much of this water contain chemicals making it inappropriate for human consumption. We distinguish between water quality and quantity problems. On average we have sufficient water to meet human needs. The problem is water distribution.

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Water is one resource that can not be generated it can only be preserved . “ Water crisis is a term used to refer to the world’s water resources relative to human demand” . A WB report(Annual report 2010) states that water supply in Pakistan has fallen from 5,000 cubic meters per capita  to 1,000 cubic meters in 2010, and is likely to further reduce to 800 cubic meters per capita by 2020


SOURCES OF WATER Indus Basin River The Indus river basin constitutes of the mountain basins Indus plain, Karachi plains and desert areas of Sindh. Its source of water is snowing, glacier melting and rainfalls.

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Closed basin Kharan desert It consists of areas of mountain basins of Quetta. Its main sources of water are rainfall and nominal snow.

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Makran coastal basin Makran coastal basin constitutes of streams of Malir, Hub, Porali, Hingol, and Kech. Its main source of water is rainfall.

Ground Water:

Ground Water Ground water is also found in some rain-fed (barani) lands and inter-mountain valleys at depths varying from 100 to 200 feet.

Water reservoirs :

Water reservoirs Pakistan is having three basic reservoirs, namely mangla dam reservoir, Terbela dam reservoir and Chashma barrage reservoir. More small reservoirs like Warsak, Khanpur and Kinjhar lake Are also included as small storage.

Utilization Of Water   :

Utilization Of Water Irrigation Out of 240.22 maf, 172.21 maf water is utilized for irrigation purposes.

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Drinking Most of the rural and urban water is supplied from ground water through tube wells and hand pumps. Net consumption is normally about 2% of the total water available.

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Industry Water is also utilized in Industries basically for cooling purposes and also in manufacturing processes. This utility is less than 1%.

Shortage of water :

Shortage of water As we all know that now a days Pakistan is facing severe shortage of water. There are two main reasons, one natural due to prolong drought---which is beyond the control of a man, and the other due to the gross negligence in the development and miss-management of water resources .

Impact on economy / society:

Impact on economy / society Less water means less agricultural yields and to fulfill the food requirements of the nation, we will be dependent on other countries. Due to less production of main crops, which are wheat, cotton, sugar cane and rice, the Industries related to them will suffer adversely

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Less agricultural outputs will compel people to head towards urban areas for jobs, which will increase the unemployment further. The distribution of water is controlled from the center by irsa (Indus river system authority) as per 1991 agreement between the provinces. Now the shortage of water will cause disputes between the provinces, which may cause harm to the national integrity.

Water Issue between Pakistan & India :

Water Issue between Pakistan & India Concern is growing in Pakistan that India is controlling the water flow of rivers that flow from India into Pakistan.

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Pakistan has raised objections to Indian water projects, but a World Bank-appointed neutral expert rejected most of the Pakistani objections. Pakistani commentators, think that India is controlling the river waters to strangulate Pakistani agriculture, which could affect Pakistani exports and increase its dependency on food imports.

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IMPORTANCE OF DAMS FOR PAKISTAN Irrigation. Electrical Energy. Municipal Water Supply. Supplement Navigation. Flood Control. Recreation.

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WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CRISIS ? A result of natural factors Inadequate water resources management Increased pollution of surface & ground water Environmental degradation Population explosion Over exploitation of ground water

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What really we can contribute ? Creating awareness on… water resources and its conservation & management A forestation activities Rain water harvesting Environmental information & education Prevention & control of water pollution Recycle of waste water Participatory natural resources management

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POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS: Water developments Kalabagh dam Thal reservoir Raised Mangla dam Mirani dam Gomalzam dam Water management The modern irrigation techniques People should be educated to conserve water by cooperation Authorities should take appropriate steps to curb the illegal extraction of water and ensure its equitable distribution . government should make laws on water conservation, like many western countries. Efforts be made to convert the present rotation based irrigation system to demand oriented system.

Conclusion :

Conclusion The problems faced by the water sector in the country are many, acute and serious. Therefore, building of more reservoirs and an effective management strategy are the needs of time. Also implementation of the recommendations will enable the country to meet the challenges, and achieve the objectives of integrated, efficient, environmentally and financially sustainable development and management of limited water resources. At the same time it will enable us to utilize every drop of our water for our bright future.

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The End

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