Nilesh kumar singh ppt.


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Hello everybodyI am nilesh kumar singh : 

Hello everybodyI am nilesh kumar singh Bca 1ST year Roll no- RTB902B51

Hard Disks : 

Hard Disks Low-level format- organizes both sides of each platter into tracks and sectors to define where items will be stored on the disk. Partitioning: divide hard disk into separate areas called partitions; each partition functions as if it were a separate hard disk drive. High-level format defines the file allocation table (FAT) for each partition, which is a table of information used to locate files on the disk.

Low Level Formatting : 

Low Level Formatting Low level format scans disk for defects and sets aside sectors with defects so they are not used for data. IDE drives should never be low level formatted by a user or technician. Only high level format necessary.

Installing IDE/EIDE drives : 

Installing IDE/EIDE drives IDE supports TWO drives in a system one master (boot disk) and one slave set master and slave using jumpers EIDE supports FOUR drives per system 2 drives on each of 2 cables only one master, all others are slaves IDE and EIDE drives both use 40-pin ribbon cable aligned to pin 1

Hard Drive : 

Hard Drive

Floppies : 

Floppies Two sizes 3.5 inch 5.25 inch 3.5 inch holds 1.44 MB for High density and 750 KB for Double Density Connected with 34 pin ribbon cable Two Floppy Drives possible Has twist in cable to distinguish A drive from B drive


RAID Redundant Array of Independent Disks Category of disk drives that employs 2 or more drives in combination for fault tolerance (error recovery) 10 levels of RAID 3 on test will be: RAID 0, RAID 3, RAID 5

RAID continued : 

RAID continued RAID 0- Striped disk without parity RAID 3- Parallel transfer with parity RAID 5- Data striping with parity

Interleaving : 

Interleaving Allows the read/write head to use the rotation of the disk to its advantage One sector is written to and the disk skips to several sectors down

Formatting : 

Formatting Low level formatting done at factory Builds the File Allocation Table (FAT) Physically scans the disk media for defects Remember FAT is always located at Track 0 High level formatting is automatically done during installation of operating system

Operating System File Systems : 

Operating System File Systems DOS uses FAT Windows 3.x uses Virtual FAT Win 95 uses VFAT and FAT32 Win NT uses NTFS

Disk compression : 

Disk compression Reduce amount of space taken up by files by substituting codes for repeating patterns of data To access data on compressed disk, must load disk compression utility into RAM first This disk compression utility works between OS and disk controller to intercept requests and compress or decompress files- the result is slower disk access

Backing up data : 

Backing up data Archival: full backup- contains everything from the hard disk Incremental: contains only files that have been modified since last (previous) backup Differential: backs up all the data modified since last full backup Copy backup: copy duplicate of file, directory, or disk to another disk


CD ROM Capacity of 650 MB Transfer speeds of around 24X speed X refers to the transfer speed in the first CD ROM, which was 150 K CD is the slowest device on PC When installing to IDE system must be configured as slave WORM and EO

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