direct and indirect speech

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Direct and Indirect Speech:

Direct and Indirect Speech

Questions:

Questions What is the subject in a sentence? A subject is that part of the sentence about which something is said. What is the verb in a sentence? A verb is the word in the sentence that shows some action What is an object in a sentence? A person or a thing that is affected by the action of the verb.

Direct and Indirect Speech:

Direct and Indirect Speech We report the words of a speaker in two ways :- We repeat his actual words or Convey same meaning in our own words Examples: He said, “ I like apples” . He said that he liked apples. The former mood of communication is Direct Speech and the later is Indirect Speech. Note : We also call Direct & Indirect Speech as Narration.

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In the case of Direct Speech, every sentence has two parts; i. Reporting speech ii. Reported speech The part outside the commas is called Reporting Speech and inside the commas is called Reported Speech. Similarly, the verb outside the commas is called Reporting Verb and that inside the comma is called Reported Verb

Rules for change of speech:

Rules for change of speech Change of Verb If the reporting verb is in present or future tense, the tense of reported verb will remain unchanged; as, He says, “ I like apples” . He says that he likes apples. Note : “s” or “es” and other helping verbs will be used according to the subject.

If the reporting verb is in the past, following changed will take place in the tense of reported verb. :

If the reporting verb is in the past, following changed will take place in the tense of reported verb. Any present changes into its relevant past tense; as He said, “ I have written a letter”. He said that he had written a letter. b) Past indefinite changes into past perfect; as, She said, “ I cooked food”. She said that she had cooked food.

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c) Was/ were in any tense change into had been; as, Aslam said to me, “ I was not there”. Aslam told me that he had not been there. d) will/shall (in all future tenses) change into would; as, Faria said, “ I will take tea”. Faria said that she would take tea. e) may/can change into might/could; as, He said, “ I can do this work”. He said that he could do this work.

Review :

Review No Reported Verb Changes I Any present Relevant past Ii Past indefinite Past perfect iii Was/were in any tense Had been Iv May Might V Can Could Vi Will/shall would

Change of certain words:

Change of certain words Direct Indirect Do Did Is, am, are Was, were Has, have Had Shall, will Should, would Can Could May Might Did Had Must Had to Was, were Had been It That Direct Indirect This, these That, those Here There Now Then Ago Before Today That day Tomorrow The next day Yesterday The previous day Last night The previous night Next The following

Change of Pronouns:

Change of Pronouns The Pronouns of the first person in the reported speech are changed to correspond with the subject of the reporting speech; as, Direct : He said, “ I want to go”. Indirect : He said that he wanted to go. 2. The Pronouns of the second person in the reported speech are changed to correspond with the subject of the reporting speech; as, I said to him, “ you can go” . I told him that he could go.

Change of Pronouns:

Change of Pronouns 3. The pronouns of the third person in the reported speech remain unchanged; as, He said, “ She will get first position”. He said that she would get first position. 4. If in the reported speech there is second person but there is no object in the reporting speech, the pronoun will change according to the sense of the sentence; as, He said, “ You are a good boy”. He said that I was a good boy.

MAIN POINTS:

MAIN POINTS If we report the actual words of the speaker it would be, Direct Speech If we convey the meaning in our own words, it would be Indirect Speech While changing direct into indirect speech changes occur in verb, pronouns, and certain words.

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