Session - 2Evolution of Computers : Session - 2Evolution of Computers 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 1
Objective : Objective To know the evolution of comuters 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 2
Evolution : Evolution Abacus
Napier’s Device
Slide rule
Pascal’s calculating Machine
Leibnit’z improved Pascal Machine
Difference Engine
Analytical Engine
Hollerith’s Card Reading Machine
Mark I
ABC
ENIAC
EDVAC
EDSAC
UNIVAC
LARC machine
IC,VLSI,PC 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 3
ABACUS : ABACUS Machine for computational assistance
Abacus from China Assisted 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 4
ABACUS Continued : ABACUS Continued 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 5 The standard abacus can be used to perform addition, subtraction, division and multiplication.
The abacus can also be used to extract square-roots and cubic roots.
The abacus is typically constructed of various types of hardwoods and comes in varying sizes.
The frame of the abacus has a series of vertical rods on which a number of wooden beads are allowed to slide freely.
A horizontal beam separates the frame into two sections, known as the upper deck and the lower deck.
ABACUS Continued : 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 6 The abacus is still in use today by shopkeepers in Asia and "Chinatowns" in North America.
The use of the abacus is still taught in Asian schools, and some few schools in the West.
Blind children are taught to use the abacus where their sighted counterparts would be taught to use paper and pencil to perform calculations.
One particular use for the abacus is teaching children simple mathematics. ABACUS Continued
ABACUS Continued : ABACUS Continued Bead Values
Each bead in the upper deck has a value of 5; each bead in the lower deck has a value of 1.
Beads are considered counted, when moved towards the beam that separates the two decks. 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 7
ABACUS Continued : 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 8 ABACUS Continued Simple Addition
ABACUS Continued : 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 9 ABACUS Continued Simple Subtraction
NAPIER’S Device : NAPIER’S Device 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 10
NAPIER’S Device continued : NAPIER’S Device continued 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 11 To make a set of Napier's Bones, we start with strips of paper, each marked out with nine boxes which have been divided by a diagonal running from bottom left to top right.
In each strip we write one of the multiplication tables of the digits 0, 1, 2, to 9.
Do this in such a way that the units are below the diagonal, and the tens (if any) are above the diagonal.
It is the configuration of the diagonal strips which will facilitate the carry operation when we come to perform long multiplication.
NAPIER’S Device continued : NAPIER’S Device continued 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 12 Figure 2: Using Napier's Bones to calculate multiples of 365
Slide Rule : Slide Rule 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 13
Slide Rule continued : Slide Rule continued In 1632 slide rule invented by Robert Bissoker.
A slide rule has been a very popular computing device.
It could perform all arithmetic and trigonometric functions
In slide rule , the final value can be straight away read on the scale. 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 14
Slide 15: 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 15 Pascal’s calculating machine (Pascaline)
Pascal’s calculating machine (Pascaline) continued : Pascal’s calculating machine (Pascaline) continued In 1642 AD Blaise Pascal, a french mathematician and philosopher developed a mechanical calculating machine called the Pascal’s calculating machine.
It was the first real desktop calculating device that could add and subtract.
It consist of a set of toothed wheels or gears with each wheel or gear having digits 0 through 9 engraved on it.
Pascaline used eight movable dials to add sums eight figures long.
Arithmetic operations were performed by turning these wheels such that when one wheel made a complete revolution, the next adjacent wheel towards left made one tenth of revolution 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 16
Leibnitz’s improved Pascal Machine : Leibnitz’s improved Pascal Machine 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 17
Leibnitz’s improved Pascal Machine continued : Leibnitz’s improved Pascal Machine continued The Pascal device performs only addition and subtraction operations, but it could not perform multiplication or division operations.
The machine was improved in 1673 by Leibnitz who introduced the “wheel” which could perform multiplication ,division and square root operations .
Called as Stepped Reckoner
Leibnitz’s improved machine could not be very popular since no one knew how to make such exact machine at that time. 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 18
Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine : Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 19
Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine Continued : Difference engine could evaluate accurately algebraic expressions and mathematical tasks upto 20 decimal places .
The device was based on the principle that “the difference between certain values is always constant in various formulae used by the mathematicians”. 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 20 Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine Continued
Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine : 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 21 Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine
Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine continued : Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine continued In 1833, Charles Babbage modified the device by generalizing the principle used for the difference engine.
The modified calculating machine is called Analytical Engine.
The analytical engine was an automatic computing machine ,designed to do additions at the rate of 60 per minute . 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 22
Holerith ‘s Card Reading Machine : Holerith ‘s Card Reading Machine 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 23
Punched card : Punched card 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 24
Holerith ‘s Card Reading Machine continued : In 1880 Herman Hollerith developed a card reading machine and used punched cards for tabulating and calculating data.
This machine could census the punched holes, recognise the number and make the required calculation. 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 25 Holerith ‘s Card Reading Machine continued
Mark – I Digital Computer : Mark – I Digital Computer 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 26
: The first electro –mechanical computer was developed in 1937 by Harvard Professor, Howard Aiken with assistance of his students and engineers from IBM.
This machine used Hollerith’s punched cards and the principle of computers as stated by Charles Babbage.
It could automatically perform a sequence of arithmetic operations.
It was essentially a huge mechanical calculator which occupied several rooms. 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 27 Mark – I Digital Computer continued
The First Electronic Computer (ABC) : The First Electronic Computer (ABC) 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 28
The First Electronic Computer (ABC) continued : The First Electronic Computer (ABC) continued Dr .Jhon Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry developed the first electronic computer and it is called as ABC –Atanasoff- Berry Computer.
It uses vaccum tubes for storage , arithmetic and logical functions.
It was a very fast machine as compared to its ancestors and could perform 5000 additions or 350 multiplications in one second. 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 29
Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator : Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 30
Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator continued : ENIAC was the first general-purpose electronic computer.
The ENIAC was a modular computer, composed of individual panels to perform different functions. Twenty of these modules were accumulators, which could not only add and subtract but hold a ten-digit decimal number in memory. Numbers were passed between these units across a number of general-purpose buses, or trays, as they were called. 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 31 Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator continued
Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator continued : The ENIAC contained 18000 vacuum tubes, along with 70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors and 60,000 manual switches.
In one second, the ENIAC (one thousand times faster than any other calculating machine to date) could perform 5,000 additions, 300 multiplications or 38 divisions. 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 32 Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator continued
Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer : Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 33
Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer(EDVAC) continued : Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer(EDVAC) continued EDVAC developed by Mouchly,Eckert and others of Moore School in 1949.
EDVAC was one of the earliest electronic computers.
Unlike its predecessor the ENIAC, it was binary rather than decimal, and was a stored program machine. 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 34
Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator : Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 35
Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator continued : In 1949, EDSAC developed by group of scientists headed by Prof.Maurice Wilkes at the Cambridge University Mathematical Laboratory.
It takes 1500 microseconds to perform addition and 4000 microseconds to perform multiplication. 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 36 Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator continued
Manchester Mark - I : Manchester Mark - I 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 37
Manchester Mark – I continued : Manchester Mark – I continued The Manchester Mark 1 was one of the earliest electronic computers, developed at the University of Manchester by a group of scientists headed by Prof. M.H.A.Newman.
It has the storage capacity of only 32 words,each of 31 binary digits.
This was too limited to store data and instructions. 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 38
Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC – I) : Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC – I) 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 39
Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC – I) continued : UNIVAC was designed by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly (designers of the ENIAC)during 1946 to 1951.
The UNIVAC handled both numbers and alphabetic characters equally well.
UNIVAC –I was the first computer, which started the computer business. 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 40 Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC – I) continued
Microprocessors : Microprocessors 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 41
Microprocessors continued : Microprocessors continued Microprocessor -- also known as a CPU or central processing unit -- is a complete computation engine that is fabricated on a single chip.
The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004, introduced in 1971.
The 4004 was not very powerful -- all it could do was add and subtract, and it could only do that 4 bits at a time. But it was amazing that everything was on one chip. 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 42
Personal Computers : Personal Computers 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 43
Personal Computers continued : Personal Computers continued A personal computer (PC) is any general-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and original sales price make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator.
The first PC developed in 1974.
In 1977, the first successful micro computer was developed by a young technician named Steve Wozniak. 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 44
Power PC 600/Pentium : Power PC 600/Pentium 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 45
Power PC 600/Pentium continued : Power PC 600/Pentium continued The PowerPC 600 family was the first family of PowerPC processors built.
IBM , Apple computers and Motorola co-operated in designing a microprocessor called Power PC 600 series. 8/23/2011 Fundamentals of Computing and Programming 46