RESEARCH-Lecture-2

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Research Methodology:

Research Methodology

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Meaning of Research Objectives of Research Motivation of Research Types of Research Research Approaches Significance of Research Research Methods and Research Methodology Criteria of good Research Problems of research in countries like Bangladesh

Meaning of Research:

Meaning of Research Research means an objective and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. Example of Research: Carbon di oxide emission due to traffic jam Causes of crimes by slum dwellers etc Effectiveness of Educational incentive system for controlling drop-outs

Cont.. :

Cont.. Research has to be an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge. Thus Research involves: Enunciating the problem Formulating the hypothesis Collecting data/ facts/information Analyzing the data/ facts/ information Reaching at conclusions

Meaning of Research: Example :

Meaning of Research: Example Problem: CO2- Traffic Jam is a health hazard- Hypothesis – within tolerable limit Collecting CO2 data through a sampling procedure Analyzing data whether within tolerable limit Making Conclusion

Objectives of Research:

Objectives of Research To achieve new insights into a phenomenon To know about the existing phenomenon To know extent of a cause or effect variables To establish relationship between variables

Motivation of Research: What makes people undertake research :

Motivation of Research: What makes people undertake research Desiring solution to the problem/ hazard Desire to do a social / national / organizational service Inner satisfaction of a creative job

Types of Research:

Types of Research Descriptive versus Analytical : Descriptive research means describing state of affairs – Mostly involves primary data – ex-post research Analytical research means carrying out analysis on a phenomenon – Mostly involves secondary data – ex-ante research- before contemplated change

Cont.:

Cont. Applied versus Fundamental Research Applied research aims to find a solution to an immediate problem facing a country/ society/ organization etc. Fundamental research is a basic research mainly concerned with generalizations

Cont.:

Cont. Quantitative versus Qualitative Research ```Quantitative research is based on the measurement of quantity or amount ```Example CO2 emission ` ```Qualitative research is concerned with subjective attitude/ quality/ attributes / desires / feelings/ etc ```Example : Feeling about Dhaka city air pollution ( intolerable / Mildly intolerable / tolerable

Cont..:

Cont.. Conceptual versus Empirical Conceptual research is about abstract ideas or theory Attack from ghosts, Empirical Research is data-based and subject to verification

Research Approaches:

Research Approaches According to types of research discussed: There can be two approaches to research: Quantitative approach: Qualitative approach

Slide13:

Quantitative approach can be further divided into 3 groups: Inferential approach – infer characteristics of a phenomenon through collection of data –example CO2 emission. Experimental approach – Researcher deliberately changes some variables to know the causal effect- example – effect of temperature rise on plant growth under open sky

Cont…:

Cont… Simulation approach – Researcher artificially construct an environment and collects data A greenhouse is constructed and impact of temperature rise on plant growth is measured

Significance of Research:

Significance of Research “ Doubt is often better than overconfidence as doubt leads to enquiry and enquiry leads to invention ” “ Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking that promotes development of logical thinking”

Cont.:

Cont. Research provides the basis of all government / international policies Research is used for solving various problems of Businesses, NGOs, Societies etc.

Research Methods and Research Methodology:

Research Methods and Research Methodology Research methods refer to use of instruments for a research technique Example: Type of Research Quantitative Field Research Methods of Research Questionnaire Focussed Group Discussion Technique of Research Researcher uses open and close ended questions Researcher selects a particular group for the detailed discussion

Cont..:

Cont.. Research methodology is a way to systemically solve the research problem Research methodology has a broader dimension than research methods

Cont..:

Cont.. Elements of Research Methodology are: Defining objective Reviewing Literature Formulating Hypothesis Designing sample Collecting data Analyzing of data Arriving at conclusions

Criteria of good Research:

Criteria of good Research The objective of the research clearly defined The research methodology used should be described in sufficient detail to permit another researcher to repeat the research for further advancement The sampling design should be such as to yield least error The writing should be done with complete frankness – nothing which has bearing on the result should be hidden

Cont..:

Cont.. The validity and reliability of data as a well as calculations should be re-checked to avoid mistakes Conclusions should be confined to those justified by data and analysis Researcher should be a person of integrity

Problems encountered in countries like Bangladesh:

Problems encountered in countries like Bangladesh Insufficient interaction between Academics and Practitioners Lack of training on the part of researchers Fear that information provided to researchers may be used against them Secondary sources of data are not timely available

Way forward to overcome research problems in Bangladesh:

Way forward to overcome research problems in Bangladesh Greater interaction between academic institutions and practicing organizations/ government/ NGOs etc. More education and training on research methodology National Policy on Research mentioning that research data can not be used against the person Timely publication of secondary data and enforcement of Act on “Right to Information”

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The End