Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in1final

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Slide 1:

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Water Research Inistitue Water Research Inistitue

Abstract:

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Abstract Sedimentation in dams reservoir is one of the main problems facing too many dams worldwide. According to the report published by International Committee of Large Dams (ICOLD), over 40,000 large dams exists in the world with a total storage capacity of 7,000 billion m3, operated for different purposes such as water supply, hydroelectric power generation and flood control. On the other hand, an average rate of 0.5 to %1 of their storage capacity is lost each year due to sedimentation. In order to compensate this reduction, between 300 and 400 large dams are required to be constructed each year. Presenting and applying appropriate treatment methods are strongly suggested to deal with this problem as well as paying special attention to the problem. Any neglect in this regard – esp. in arid and semi-arid regions like Iran – will result in more complicated situation and more problems regarding finding good solutions and is considered a real threat for future generations. Over 42 large dams are now under operation in Iran with a total storage capacity of about 33,000 mm3. According to made measurements, yearly rate of sedimentation in dams reservoir in Iran is estimated 0.5 to %0.75 which is equal to 175 to 250 mm3 per year. In other words, about 200 mm3 of capacity of dams reservoir in Iran is lost each year. Some major dams in Iran and their specifications are presented in the following.

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Number of large dams in the world 40,000 Storage capacity 7,000 Milliard m3 Average rate of sedimentation worldwide %0.5 - %1

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran (by 2000):

Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran (by 2000)

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Map of Dams in IRAN

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Average rate of sedimentation in Iran %0.75 - %1 Number of large dams in Iran (under operation): 42 Storage capacity 33,000 million m3 Yearly rate of settled sediment in dams reservoir: 175 – 250 million m3

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Dez Dam Dam type Concrete arch dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 17.94 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 3460 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 681.83 First Operation date 1962 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 2778.17 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1997 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 19.7 Sedimentation Period (year) 35 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 0.52 Sediment rate (MCM) 628 Trap Efficiency (%) 100

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Karun Dam Dam type Concrete arch dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 30.74 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 3139 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 706.96 First Operation date 1977 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 2432.04 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1996 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 22.52 Sedimentation Period (year) 19 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 0.98 Sediment rate (MCM) 584 Trap Efficiency (%) -

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Zayandehrud Dam Dam type Concrete arch dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 2.53 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 1460 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 76 First Operation date 1970 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 138 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1998 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 5.2 Sedimentation Period (year) 28 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 0.17 Sediment rate (MCM) 71 Trap Efficiency (%) 98

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Dorudzan Dam Dam type Earth dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 2 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 993 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 58 First Operation date 1971 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 935 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1998 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 5.84 Sedimentation Period (year) 27 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 0.2 Sediment rate (MCM) 54 Trap Efficiency (%) -

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Sefidrud Dam Dam type Concrete buttress dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 36.6 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 1760 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 700 First Operation date 1962 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 1060 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1980 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 39.77 Sedimentation Period (year) 18 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 2.08 Sediment rate (MCM) 660 Trap Efficiency (%) -

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Minab Dam Dam type Concrete buttress dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 7 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 350 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 118.9 First Operation date 1983 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 231.1 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1998 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 33.97 Sedimentation Period (year) 15 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 2 Sediment rate (MCM) 104.9 Trap Efficiency (%) -

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Karaj Dam Dam type Concrete arch dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 0.53 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 205 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 20.77 First Operation date 1961 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 184.23 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1991 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 10.13 Sedimentation Period (year) 30 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 0.26 Sediment rate (MCM) 16 Trap Efficiency (%) 93

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Lar Dam Dam type Earth dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 2.32 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 960 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 44.1 First Operation date 1981 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 915.9 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1995 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 4.59 Sedimentation Period (year) 14 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 0.24 Sediment rate (MCM) 32.5 Trap Efficiency (%) -

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Latyan Dam Dam type Concrete buttress dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 0.87 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 95 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 28.67 First Operation date 1967 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 66.33 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1995 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 30.18 Sedimentation Period (year) 28 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 0.91 Sediment rate (MCM) 24.32 Trap Efficiency (%) -

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Saveh Dam Dam type Concrete arch dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 3.93 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 290 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 29.46 First Operation date 1993 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 260.54 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1996 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 10.16 Sedimentation Period (year) 3.5 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 1.35 Sediment rate (MCM) 13\.74 Trap Efficiency (%) 98

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Golpayegan Dam Dam type Earth dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 0.17 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 42.3 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 7.34 First Operation date 1957 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 34.96 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1998 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 17.35 Sedimentation Period (year) 41 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 0.4 Sediment rate (MCM) 7 Trap Efficiency (%) -

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran 15 khordad Dam Dam type Earth dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 1.85 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 200 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 9.25 First Operation date 1995 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 190.75 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1996 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 4.62 Sedimentation Period (year) 2 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 0.92 Sediment rate (MCM) 3.7 Trap Efficiency (%) -

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Chah nimeh Dam Dam type Earth dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 1 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 660 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 18 First Operation date 1982 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 642 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1999 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 2.73 Sedimentation Period (year) 17 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 0.15 Sediment rate (MCM) 17 Trap Efficiency (%) -

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Qeshlagh Dam Dam type Earth dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 0.36 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 224 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 7.6 First Operation date 1979 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 216.34 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1999 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 3.42 Sedimentation Period (year) 20 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 0.16 Sediment rate (MCM) 7.3 Trap Efficiency (%) 97

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Ekbatan Dam Dam type Concrete gravity dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 0.12 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 8 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 2.82 First Operation date 1963 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 5.18 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1995 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 35.25 Sedimentation Period (year) 32 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 1.5 Sediment rate (MCM) 3.92 Trap Efficiency (%) 90

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Jiroft Dam Dam type Concrete arch dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 11.5 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 425 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 92 First Operation date 1982 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 333 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1996 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 21.64 Sedimentation Period (year) 4 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 2.7 Sediment rate (MCM) 46 Trap Efficiency (%) -

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Voshmgeer Dam Dam type Earth dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 0.98 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 59.5 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 29.5 First Operation date 1970 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 30 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1995 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 49.58 Sedimentation Period (year) 25 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 1.65 Sediment rate (MCM) 24.6 Trap Efficiency (%) 83

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Torogh Dam Dam type Concrete dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 0.87 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 33.1 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 10.44 First Operation date 1988 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 22.66 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1996 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 31.54 Sedimentation Period (year) 8 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 2.63 Sediment rate (MCM) 6.96 Trap Efficiency (%) -

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Kardeh Dam Dam type Concrete dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 1.11 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 28.2 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 14.44 First Operation date 1987 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 13.76 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1996 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 51.2 Sedimentation Period (year) 9 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 3.94 Sediment rate (MCM) 10 Trap Efficiency (%) -

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Bukan Dam Dam type Earth dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 4.17 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 648 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 120.85 First Operation date 1971 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 527.15 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1995 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 18.65 Sedimentation Period (year) 24 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 0.64 Sediment rate (MCM) 100 Trap Efficiency (%) 90

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Mahabad Dam Dam type Earth dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 0.78 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 220 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 22.5 First Operation date 1971 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 197.5 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1999 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 10.23 Sedimentation Period (year) 28 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 0.35 Sediment rate (MCM) 21.73 Trap Efficiency (%) 98

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Arass Dam Dam type Earth dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 7.29 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 1366 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 211.28 First Operation date 1971 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 1154.72 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1999 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 15.47 Sedimentation Period (year) 28 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 0.53 Sediment rate (MCM) 204 Trap Efficiency (%) -

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Pishin Dam Dam type Earth dam Yearly average sedimentation rate (MCM) 1.62 First Volume of the reservoir (MCM) 175 Probable sediment rate by 2000 (MCM) 12.14 First Operation date 1993 Current reservoir volume (MCM) 162.86 Latest Sedimentation Studies 1997 Percentage of reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 6.94 Sedimentation Period (year) 4.5 Percentage of yearly reservoir volume reduction due to sedimentation 0.93 Sediment rate (MCM) 7.28 Trap Efficiency (%) -

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Grading from the viewpoint of the rate of yearly reduction of reservoir volume Dam Name Grading from the viewpoint of the rate of yearly reduction of reservoir volume Dam Name Grading from the viewpoint of the rate of yearly reduction of reservoir volume Kardeh 1 Bukan 13 Jiroft 2 Arass 14 Torogh 3 Dez 15 Sefidrud 4 Golpayegan 16 Gorgan 6 Mahabad 17 Ekbatan 7 Karaj 18 Saveh 8 Lar 19 Karun 9 Dorudzan 20 Pishin 10 zayandehrud 21 Latyan 11 Geshlagh 22 15 Khordad 12 Chah nimeh 23

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Sedimentation in the Reservoir of Large Dams in Iran Thanks for Your Attention

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