How Are Plated Through Hole Printed Circuit Boards Made - Miracle Aero

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How Are Plated Through Hole Printed Circuit Boards Made PCBs have been made for more than 80 years now and over the years there have been many different types of PCBs manufactured. Today in this blog we will speak about one of the most common PCBs being manufactured today – the Plated Through Hole PTH PCBs. Miracle Aerospace is the leading PCB assembly manufacturer from India where you can have the best quality PTH PCBs manufactured for projects of all kinds – high-mix low medium and high volume. It is a good choice to outsource your PCB assembly manufacturing to a manufacturer like this one as you can rest assured to get AS9100D ISO 13485:2016 and QMS ISO 9001:2015 certified products here. Manufacturing PTH PCBs involves lots of different techniques and disciplines whose interface needs to be well understood and controlled to produce reliable and consistent results. One fault in any one stage of the PCB manufacturing process and the entire product fails In fact one small fault can result in the failure of the entire application and device too Thus to keep from such damage and failure it is important that you understand every stage and make sure the process is followed meticulously. Stage 1 Every PCB begins with a CAD or Gerber file that needs to be tooled. Every manufacturer works with different machines and tools to tool the files and position the panels for alignment from one process to the next.

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Stage 2 The panel is then drilled with required holes for the circuit and any tooling holes or slots for production. Stage 3 All the previously drilled holes are non-conductive. In order to connect them together the entire panel goes through a series of wet chemical processes to metalize the surface. This process adds 1-5 microns of copper to all the surfaces. Stage 4 Both the sides of the panel are coated with a film of photosensitive resist which will give a plating resist. Then the areas that require copper tracks are electroplated with copper and a thin coating of tin which also reinforces the drilled plated holes. Stage 5 The plating resist is removed and the panel is passed through an etching solution. The areas where copper is applied is etched but tin remains as it is. This is because tin acts as an etching resist thus leaving behind conductive tracks. Stage 6 The tin is then removed and the copper is etched and cleaned. Then a coating of electrical insulating and protective photo-imagable soldermask ink is applied. An image is then generated with the help of a photo tool leaving a hard coating over the entire circuit. This results in copper pads being exposed to allow for component interconnection. Stage 7 Finally a solderable surface finish is applied to the board. Depending upon the application and complexity of the board design it could either be Hot Air Solder Leveled HASL or Electroless Nickel Immersion Gold ENIG. These are the two most common finishes used but there are many other surface finished available. You can speak to your PCB assembly manufacturer from India to understand which type of finish will be the best for your application and have the same applied to your PCB. Stage 8

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Here a Legend can be applied by photo-imaging or silkscreen printing to allow for easy component placement. If any kinds of repairs or upgrades are required in the PCB this Legend acts as an aid in the field. There The circuit is now ready for routing as a single circuit or left in a panel prior to bare board testing. Once tested for opens breaks and shorts the PCBs are then visually inspected for any errors before being dispatched to the client.

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