Grammar Book Ellie Morrison

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Spanish Grammar Book! Ellie Morrison Period: 1 1

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2 Table of Contents

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Present Perfect He Hemos Has Habéis Ha Han + Past Participle Expresses actions that have happened recently and/or actions that still hold true in the present Abrir Abierto Cubrir Cubierto Decir Dicho Escribir Escrito Freír Frito Hacer Hecho Morir Muerto Poner Puesto Resolver Resuelto Romper Roto Ver Visto Volver Vuelto Irregular Past Participles 3

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Present Perfect Subjunctive The present perfect subjunctive is formed by using the present subjunctive of the helping verb haber with the past participle Haya Hayamos Hayas Hayáis Haya Hayan + Past Participle The present perfect subjunctive is used in the same types of clauses as the present subjunctive, and normally is used to indicate the action as completed with governing verbs in the present or future tense or command forms. Me alegro de   I'm glad she (has) arrived . Dudo I doubt she (has) arrived . Niego I deny she (has) arrived . que ella haya llegado . Es posible It's possible she (has) arrived . Lo haré después I'll do it after she has arrived . No lo hagas a menos Don't do it unless she has arrived . 4

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Ser D escription - E s un lápiz O rigin - E s de Argentina C haracteristics -Es alto T ime -Son las dos O ccupation -Es Doctor R elationship -Es mi papá P ossession -Es de mi madre E vent - E s en el cine D ates -Es el lunes Estar Physical Condition -It is a condition that can change, not a trait - Estoy muy triste porque saqué malas notas . Location (Not Events) -Es de Argentina, pero ahora esta en los Estados Unidos . Present Progressive Tense (- ing verbs) - Esta lloviendo . V. 5

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Verbs Like Gustar Aburrir Doler Caer ( bien /mal) Quedar Molestar Interesar Importar Fascinar Faltar Encantar Disgustar Preocupar Apetecer Soprender When gustar is followed by one or more verbs in the infinitive, the singular form of gustar is always used Gustar is often used in the conditional (me gustaría ) to soften a request. A Adela le encanta la música de Shakira . A mi me intresa la músic de otros países . A mis amigos les encantan las canciones de Maná . 6

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El Pretérito Habl é Habl amos Habl aste Habl astéis Habl ó Habl aron Escrib í Escrib imos Escrib iste Escrib istéis Escrib ió Escrib ieron Com í Com imos Com iste Com istéis Com ió Com ieron - ar - i r - e r When using the preterite , take off the - er , - ir , or - ar ending and replace it with the corresponding ending (in bold) in the charts provided. Yo Nostotros Tú Vosotros El/Ella/ Usted Ellos / Ellas / Ustedes 7

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Trigger Words Pretérito English Translation un día one day una vez once ayer yesterday anoche last night hace un año a year ago ya already el mes pasado last month anteayer day before yesterday el … pasado (lunes, martes, etc.) last … (Monday, Tuesday, etc.) desde el primer momento from the first moment a las ocho at eight el cinco de febrero on February fifth dos veces twice These words indicate that the preterite will be used. 8

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Bus qué Bus camos Bus caste Bus casteis Bus có Busc aron Almor cé Almor zamos Almor zaste Almor zasteis Almor zó Almor zaron Ju gué Ju gamos Ju gaste Ju gasteis Ju gó Ju garon -car - zar - gar When using -car -gar - zar verbs in the preterite , take of the -car, -gar, or - zar ending and replace it with the corresponding ending (in bold) in the charts provided. Yo Nostotros Tú Vosotros El/Ella/ Usted Ellos / Ellas / Ustedes -Car -gar - zar 9

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Spock Verbs VER DAR SER IR HACER Hago Hacemos Haces Hacéis Hace Hacen Fui Fuimos Fuiste Fuisteis Fue Fueron (D/V) i (D/V) imos (D/V) iste (D/V) isteis (D/V) io (D/V) ieron Dar/ Ver Ir /Ser Hacer 10

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Cucaracha Verbs Andar Anduv - Estar Estuv - Poder Pud - Poner Pus- Quere Quis - Saber Sup- Tener Tuv - Venir Vin- Conducir Conduj - Producir Produj - Taducir Traduj - Decir Dij - Traer Traj - -e - iste -o - imos - isteis - ieron With these irregular verbs, in the preterite , change the root and add the appropriate ending. root ending Note: When the verbs ‘ conducir ’, ‘ producir ’, ‘ traducir ’, ‘ decir ’, and ‘ traer ’ are used in the thrid -person plural, take off the i in ‘ ieron ’. -e - iste -o - imos - isteis - eron 11

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Snake Verbs e- ie e- i Mentir Pedir Preferir Servir Divertir Competir Divertirse Repetir Sentirse Vestirse If the first e in the verb in the present tense changes from e to i , then change the first e to i in the third person in the preterite . Pedí Pedimos Pediste Pedisteis P i dió P i dieron Mentí Mentimos Mentiste Mentisteis M i ntió M i ntieron If the first e in the verb in the present tense changes from e to ie , then change the first e to i in the third person in the preterite . 12

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Snakey Verbs For verbs that end in - aer , - eer , - oír , and - oer , the él / ella / usted forms use the ending " yó " (rather than ió ) and the third person plural uses the ending " yeron " (rather than ieron ). The remaining forms gain a written accent over the letter " i ." Creer Cre í cre í mos cre í ste cre í steis cre yó cre yeron Verbs that end in - uir change in the same way, but the written accent over the letter " i " only occurs in the yo form. Exceptions to the Rule: traer atraer distraer Huir hu í huimos huiste huisteis hu yó hu yeron Cucaracha Verbs! 13

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El Imperfecto Habl aba Habl amos Habl abas Habl abais Habl aba habl aban Com ía Com íamos Com ías Com íais Com ía Com ían - ar - er /- ir Yo Nostotros Tú Vosotros El/Ella/ Usted Ellos / Ellas / Ustedes When using the imperfect, take off the - er , - ir , or - ar ending and replace it with the corresponding ending (in bold) in the charts provided. 14

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Trigger Words Imperfecto English Translation a veces sometimes mientras while cada día every day a menudo often muchas veces many times todos los días every day siempre always de vez en cuando once in a while frecuentemente frequently These words indicate that the imperfect will be used. 15

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Irregu lars Iba Íabmos Ibas Iba Iban Veía Veíamos Veías Veía Veían Era Éramos Eras Era Eran ir ser ver 16

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Preterite v. Imperfect 17

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The subjunctive is not a tense; rather, it is a mood. Tense refers to when an action takes place (past, present, future), while mood merely reflects how the speaker feels about the action. The subjunctive mood is used to express everything except certainty and objectivity: things like doubt, uncertainty, subjectivity, etc. Because there must be some uncertainty or subjectivity to warrant the use of the subjunctive, you will usually see it in sentences that contain a main clause which introduces a quality of uncertainty or subjectivity. If you encounter a sentence with a main clause followed by a second clause, and the main clause does not introduce a quality of certainty or objectivity , the sentence will usually use the subjunctive mood in the second clause, since the sentence will not be reporting something certain. If you encounter a sentence with a main clause followed by a second clause, and the main clause introduces a quality of certainty or objectivity , the sentence will use the indicative mood in the second clause, since the sentence will be reporting something certain. Subjunctive 18

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19 Subjunctive: Conjunctions of Time The following adverbial conjunctions deal with time, and are followed by the subjunctive when the main clause is a command or in the (potential) future. If they introduce one which is viewed as completed or habitual, they are followed by the indicative instead. Conjunction Translation a medida que as, according as cuando when dado que granted that, in case that después (de) que after en cuanto as soon as hasta que until luego que as soon as mientras while nada más que as soon as por más ... que no matter how much, however much por mucho que no matter how much, however much siempre que whenever, every time that tan pronto como as soon as Subjunctive Indicative Me lavaré los dientes después de que comamos . I'll brush my teeth after we eat . Siempre me lavo los dientes después que comemos . I always brush my teeth after we eat . Trabajaremos mientras ellos descansen . We will work while they rest . Trabajamos mientras ellos descansan . We work while they rest .

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-e -emos -es -éis -e -en -ar Verbs -a -amos -as -áis -a -an -er -ir Verbs Forming the Subjunctive 20

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The formula also works for verbs that have irregular "yo" forms in the present indicative . conocer (yo conozco) conozco - o = conozc conozc + a = conozca conozc + as = conozcas conozc + a = conozca conozc + amos = conozcamos conozc + áis = conozcáis conozc + an = conozcan For -ar and -er stem-changing verbs, the formula applies except that there is no stem change in the nosotros and vosotros forms. pensar (yo pienso) pienso - o = piens piens + e = piense piens + es = pienses piens + e = piense pens + emos = pensemos pens + éis = penséis piens + en = piensen For -ir stem-changing verbs, the formula applies except that the stem change in the nosotros and vosotros forms follows these patterns: o:ue verbs change o to u; e:ie verbs change e to i; e:i verbs change e to i. dormir (yo duermo) duermo - o = duerm duerm + a = duerma duerm + as = duermas duerm + a = duerma durm + amos = durmamos durm + áis = durmáis duerm + an = duerman Zar -Car -Gar Verbs For verbs that end in -zar , the z changes to c when it comes before the e . For verbs that end in -car , the c changes to qu when it comes before the e . For verbs that end in -gar , the c changes to gu when it comes before the e . pagar pa gu e pa gu es pa gu e pa gu emos pa gu éis pa gu en Forming the Subjunctive- Irregulars 21

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For verbs that end in -ger or -gir , the g changes to j when it comes before the letter a. escoger esco j a esco j as esco j a esco j amos esco j áis esco j an For verbs that end in -guir , the gu changes to g when it comes before the letter a . seguir (e:i) si g a si g as si g a si g amos si g áis si g an For verbs that end in uir , add the letter y before the letter a . huir hu y a hu y as hu y a hu y amos hu y áis hu y an Dar- To give Estar- To be Haber- To have Ir- To go Saber- To know Ser- To be dé esté haya vaya sepa sea des estés hayas vayas sepas seas dé esté haya vaya sepa sea demos estemos hayamos vayamos sepamos seamos deis estéis hayáis vayáis sepáis seáis den estén hayan vayan sepan sean Forming the Subjunctive- Irregulars 22

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Informal commands Informal commands are formed differently depending on whether the command is positive or negative. Forming the Command Forming the Command The affirmative informal ( tú ) commands are formed the same way as the present indicative Ud . form. Positive Negative The negative informal ( tú ) commands are formed the same way as the present subjunctive tú form. Add the word no before it. Irregulars Irregulars decir - di salir - sal hacer - haz ser - sé ir - ve tener - ten poner - pon venir - ven Irregulars Irregulars are the same as the irregulars of the present subjunctive. (see pages 39-40) DOP + IOP Placement Add DOP and IOPs to the end of the command. Ex: comprala Add DOP and IOPs between no and the command. Ex: No la compres DOP + IOP Placement 23

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Formal commands All formal commands are formed the same way as the Ud . form of the present subjunctive. (see pages 39-40) To make the command negative, simply add the word no right before the command. (duh) Ex: No compre Irregulars are the same as those in the subjunctive. (see pages 39-40) Irregulars Negative DOP + IOP Placement For affirmative commands DOPs and IOPs are attached to the end of affirmative commands. In negative commands, they are added between the no and the command. 24

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Nosotros Commands All nosotros commands are formed the same way as the nosotros form of the present subjunctive. (see pages 39-40) To make the command negative, simply add the word no right before the command. Ex: No compremos Irregulars are the same as those in the subjunctive. (see pages 39-40) Irregulars Negative DOP + IOP Placement Negative Affirmative Reflexive, object and indirect object pronouns are added to the end of the command An accent mark must be added to preserve pronunciation Ex: Comer + lo -> Com á mos lo 'Mono' verbs: When adding nos to an affirmative nosotros command, you must take off the last -s in the verb (command). Ex: Olvidar + nos -> Olvidé mono s (Not: Olvidémosnos ) Adding "se": When adding the pronoun se , the last -s must be removed from the verb (command). Ex: Prestar + se + la -> Prestémosela . (Not: Prestémossela ) Reflexive, object and indirect object pronouns are added between the no and the command. Ex: Comer + lo (Negative) -> No lo comamos Since the pronouns are not attached to the command, there is no need for dropping and letters or adding any accent marks. Mono Verbs 25

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Cecilia está tomando fotos . Miguel visita a Christina. 26 Direct Object Pronouns Subject verb Direct object noun Singular Plural Me Nos Te Os Lo Los La Las Personal pronoun

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El vendedor le vende el suéter a Javier 27 Indirect Object Pronouns To whom F or whom Singular Plural Me Nos Te Os Le Les Subject IO pronoun Verb Direct Object Indirect object

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28 Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns Spanish has three demonstrative words Ese This Este That Aquel That one over there Juan reads this book. (adjective) Juan lee este libro . Juan reads this . (pronoun) Juan lee este . That statue is Greek. Esa estatua es griega . That (one) is American. Esa es americana . In English, we say "this" or "that" depending upon whether the object is close to us or not. In Spanish, we also say "this" and "that," but there is another, separate word used to mean "that one over there." This form is used when the object is more than just a short distance away, for example, on the other side of the room. Here are the three forms for "this" "that" and "that one over there." These words can function ad adjectives or pronouns depending on how they are used.

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29 Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns The demonstrative adjectives also have four forms: este libro (this book) estos libros (these books) esta pluma (this pen) estas plumas (these pens) ese libro (that book) esos libros (those books) esa pluma (that pen) esas plumas (those pens) aquel libro (that book over there) aquellos libros (those books over there) aquella pluma (that pen over there) aquellas plumas (those pens over there) Here are the corresponding demonstrative pronouns: este (this one - masculine) estos (these ones - masculine) esta (this one - feminine) estas (these ones - feminine) ese (that one - masculine) esos (those ones - masculine) esa (that one - feminine) esas (those ones - feminine) aquel (that one over there - masc.) aquellos (those ones over there - masc.) aquella (that one over there - fem.) aquellas (those ones over there - fem.) Each demonstrative pronoun also has a neuter form. They do not change for number or gender, and they are used to refer to abstract ideas, or to an unknown object. esto (this matter, this thing) eso (that matter, that thing) aquello (that matter/thing over there)

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Common verbs of expression Alegrarse (de) Esperar Sentir (e:ie) Sorprender Temer Es triste Ojalá ( que ) Subjunctive W ith Verbs of Emotion The subjunctive is made of a main clause and a subordinate clause. The main clause may contain a verb of emotion such as hope , joy , surprise , fear , and pity . The subordinate clause contains the subjunctive. Main Clause Connector Subordinate Clause Nos alegramos de que te gustan las flores . Siento que tú no puedas venir . Le sorprende que Juan sea tan joven . Emotion Infinitive Temo llegar tarde . I’m afraid of arriving late. Emotion Subjunctive Temo que Mis estudiantes llegueren tarde . I’m afraid that My students will arrive late. When there is no change in the subject, use an infinitive. When there is a change in the subject, use the subjunctive. Trigger words -> 30

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Por Passing through Caminó por la calle . General rather than specific location Se encuentra por ahí . How long something lasts Estuvo enfermo por siete días . The cause of something Por su culpa, no fuimos al cine. An exchange Cambió su auto por uno nuevo . Doing something in place of or instead of someone else Hoy por tí , mañana por mí . A means of Transportation Viajaron por barco hasta Tierra del Fuego. 31

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Para For whom something is done Compraremos un regalo para Sara. Destination Francisco tomó el avión para San Juan. The purpose for which something is done Compré anteojos para ver mejor . To express an opinion Para mi, los ejercicios son fantásticos . To contrast or compare Para la maestra de español , no sabe mucho de los matematicas . To express idea of a deadline Hay que terminar la tare para mañana . 32