Grammar Book

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Grammar Book:

Grammar Book Katia Taylor

Table of Contents:

Table of Contents Pg. 1- The Present Tense Pg. 2- Stem Changing Verbs Pg. 3- Irregular Yo Forms/ Irregular Verbs Pg . 4- Gustar y los verbos similares Pg. 5 - Ser y Estar Pg. 6- Por y para Pg. 7 - The Preterite Pg. 8- The Imperfect Pg. 9- Mandatos Formales Pg. 10- Mandatos en la forma de tu Pg. 11- Subjunctive in Noun Clauses Pg. 12- Direct Object Pronouns Pg. 13- Indirect Object Pronouns Pg. 14- Double Object Pronouns Pg. 15- The Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses Pg. 16- Reflexive Verbs

The Present Tense:

The Present Tense The present tense is used to express actions that are happening right then. For example: Tengo el pan. However, in order to differentiate whom you are talking about, different actions need to take place. For example: Tenga un pan would be describing a person, not ones self. Persona/s - ar - er - ir yo -o -o -o tu -as - es - es El/ ella / usted -a -e -e nosotros - amos - emos - emos vosotros - áis - éis - ís Ellos / ustedes -an -en -en

Stem Changing Verbs:

Stem Changing Verbs Some verbs change in the present tense. In – ar and – er verbs, -e changes to - ue . In some – ir verbs, -e changes to – i . The nosotros and vosotros forms never stem change. -e to - ie -o to - ue -e to - i PENSAR PODER PEDIR - p ie nso - p ue do - p i do - p ie nsas - p ue des - p i des - p ie nsa - p ue de - p i de - pensamos - podemos - pedimos - pensais - podeis - pedis - p ie nsan - p ue den - p i den


Irregulars Many – er and – ir verbs have irregular yo forms in the present tense. Verbs ending in – cer or – cir change to – zco in the yo form; those ending in – ger or – gir change to – jo . Caber, saber, and ver have individual irregularities. Hacer to ha go Conocer to cono zco Escoger to eseco jo Caber to quepo Saber to se Ver to veo Irregular Yo Forms: Irregular Verbs: Dar Decir Estar Ir O ír Ser Tener Venir Doy Digo Estoy Voy Oigo Soy Tengo Vengo Das Dices Est ás Vas Oyes Eres Tienes Vienes Da Dice Est á Va Oye Es Tiene Viene Damos Decimos Estamos Vamos O ímos Somos Tenemos Venimos Da ís Dec ís Est áis Va ís O ís So ís Ten éis Ven ís Dan Dicen Est án Van Oyen Son Tienen Vienen

Verbos como Gustar:

Verbos como Gustar Gustar and verbs like gustar are emphasizing the object of the sentence and not the number of people performing the action. Infinitives must be used: Me Nos Te Os Le Les Aburrir to bore Fascinar to be fascinating Bastar to be sufficient Importar to be important caer bien (mal) to (not) suit Interesar to be interesting dar asco to be loathsome Molestar to be a bother Disgustar to hate something Parecer to appear to be doler ( o:ue ) to be painful Picar to itch Encantar to "love" something Quedar to be left over, remain Faltar to be lacking something volver ( o:ue ) loco to be crazy about Examples: Me gusta la casa. Me gustan las casas. Te gusta el cuarto. Te gustan los cuartos. Le gusta la silla. Le gustan las sillas. Nos gusta el hotel. Nos gustan los hoteles. Os gusta la comida. Os gustan las comidas. Les gusta el reloj. Les gustan los relojes .

Ser y Estar:

Ser y Estar Ser Soy Somos Eres Sois Es Son Estar Estoy Estamos Est ás Est áis Est á Est án Both verbs mean to be, how does one differentiate? Ser is used to express: 1.the hour, day, and date of origin 3.occupation 4. nationality 5. religious or political affiliation 6. the material something is made of 7. possession 8. relationship of one person to another 9. certain impersonal expressions 10. where an event is taking place 11. essential qualities Estar is used to express: geographic or physical location state or condition many idiomatic expressions progressive tenses Ser and estar (contrasting uses) When a noun follows the verb, use ser When an adjective follows the verb, decide between "essence" and "condition" To tell where something is from, use ser To tell where something is located right now, use estar To tell where an event is taking place, use ser

Por y Para:

Por y Para Por Rule: to express gratitude or apology Rule : for multiplication and division Rule : for velocity, frequency and proportion Rule : meaning "through," "along," "by" or "in the area of" Rule : when talking about exchange, including sales Rule : to mean "on behalf of," or "in favor of," Rule : to express a length of time Rule : to express an undetermined, or general time, meaning "during" Rule : for means of communication or transportation Rule : in cases of mistaken identity, or meaning "to be seen as" Rule : to show the reason for an errand (with ir , venir , pasar , mandar , volver , and preguntar ) Rule : when followed by an infinitive, to express an action that remains to be completed, use por + infinitive Rule : to express cause or reason Rule : " estar por " means to be in the mood, or inclined to do something Rule : in passive constructions Para Rule: to indicate destination Rule : to show the use or purpose of a thing Rule : to mean "in order to" or "for the purpose of" Rule : to indicate a recipient Rule : to express a deadline or specific time Rule : to express a contrast from what is expected Rule : " estar para " to express an action that will soon be completed Por and para are both used to express for. However, there are different uses for both por and para .

The Preterite:

The Preterite This is used for past actions that are seen as completed. For normal verbs: Persona/as - ar - er / ir Yo -é -í Tu - aste - iste El/ Ella/ Ud . -ó -ó Nosotros - amos - imos Vosotros - asteis - isteis Ellos / Uds . - aron - ieron However, some verbs don’t follow these rules: ser , ir , dar , and hacer ser ir Dar hacer Yo Fui Fui Di Hice Tu Fuiste Fuiste Diste Hiciste Ud . Fue Fue Dio Hizo Nos Fuimos Fuimos Dimos Hicimos Vos Fuisteis Fuisteis Disteis Hicisteis Uds Fueron Fueron Dieron Hicieron - ar and - er stem-changing verbs do not change in the preterite - ir stem-changing verbs do change in the preterite ( e:i and o:u third person singular and plural) Verbs that end in -gar change g to gu Verbs that end in -car change c to qu Verbs that end in - zar change z to c

The Preterite (cntd):

The Preterite ( cntd ) decir traer ver dije traje vi dijiste trajiste viste dijo trajo vio dijimos trajimos vimos dijisteis trajisteis visteis dijeron trajeron vieron Infinitive Stem Change Endings andar anduv- -e estar estuv- -iste tener tuv- -o caber cup- -imos haber hub- -isteis poder pud- -ieron poner pus-   saber sup-   hacer hic-   querer quis-   venir vin-   These verbs also have irregular endings.

The Imperfect:

The Imperfect Imperfect is used for past actions that are not seen as completed. The imperfect is the equivalent of an – ing word in english such as we were going. - ar - er / - ir Yo -aba - ía Tu - abas - ías Usted -aba - ía Nosotros - ábamos - íamos Vosotros - abais - íais Ustedes - aban - ían Like the preterit, the imperfect also has irregular verbs. ser ir ver Era Iba Ve ía Eras Ibas Ve ías Era Iba Ve ía éramos íbamos Ve íamos Erais Ibais Ve íais Eran Iban Ve ían

Mandatos Formales:

Mandatos Formales These are used when telling someone what they need to do. To create a formal command: 1. Start with the yo form of the present indicative. 2. Then drop the -o ending. 3. Finally, add the following endings: - ar verbs: -e (for Ud .), -en (for Uds .) - er and - ir verbs: -a (for Ud .), -an (for Uds .) Commands also have irregular verbs. Verb Conjugation Dar D é , Den Estar Est é , Est én Ir Vaya , Vayan Ser Sea, Sean Saber Sepa , Sepan If the verb is negative, add no in front of it.

Mandatos Informales:

Mandatos Informales Informal commands are formed the same way as formal in the positive form: ( hablar - ar + a = habla ) (comer - er + e = come) ( escribir - ir + e = escribe ) If the informal command is negative, put the verb in the opposite tu form: ( hablar – ar + es = no hables ) (comer – er + as = no comas) ( escribir – ir + as = no escribas ) Irregular verbs also have informal commands. verb Conjugation Decir Di Hacer Haz Ir Ve Poner Pon Ser S é Salir Sal Tener Ten Venir Ven

Subjunctive in Noun:

Subjunctive in Noun Used to express: Will Influence Emotion Doubt Denial To conjugate: drop the –o from the yo form of the present indicative and add the subjunctive endings - ar - er - ir Yo -e -a -a Tu - es -as -as El/ la, Ud . -e -a -a Nosotros - emos - amos - amos Vosotros - e ís - áis - áis Ellos /as, Uds . -en -an -an Verbs that have changes in the present indicative still change. Irregulars: Dar Estar Ir Saber Ser Yo D é Est é Vaya Sepa Sea Tu Des Est és Vayas Sepas Seas El/la, Ud . D é Est é Vaya Sepa Sea Nosotros Demos Estemos Vayamos Sepamos Seamos Vosotros Deis Est éis Vay áis Sep áis Se áis Ellos /as, Uds Den Est én Vayan Sepan Sean There are trigger phrases that accompany the subjunctive. They are called adjective clauses and they usually start with: Es ____ que + subjunctive

Direct Objects:

Direct Objects Cecilia está tomando fotos . N V DO What is she doing? Taking photos A direct object asks what the subject is doing. Singular Plural Me Me Nos us Te Familiar You Os you Lo you/ him/ it Los you/ them La you/ her/ it Las you/ them Adela practica el tenis . This can be changed to: Adela lo practica . Negative: Adela no tiene las llaves . DO goes between no and verb: Adela no las tiene . Present Progressive: Gerardo está leyendo la leccion . Gerardo está ley é ndola or Gerardo está la leyendo . The accent mark is added to maintain proper stress and is added to the third syllable from the right.

Indirect Objects:

Indirect Objects This receives the action of the verb indirectly. Asks: To whom? Or For Whom? Me Nos Te Os Le Les Ella le vende la ropa a Elena. You can take the person off if you know who you’re talking about. Dar and decir are often used with Indirect Objects: - dar consejos - dar un regalo - dar una fiesta

Double Object Pronouns:

Double Object Pronouns Indirect/ Direct Pronouns El camarero me muestro el menu. IO DO El camarero me lo muestro . Se + lo/los + usted / el/ ella la/ las Masculine (S) Feminine (S) Masculine (P) Feminine (P) Meaning (of) m ío m ía m íos m ías my; mine tuyo tuya tuyos tuyas your; yours suyo suya suyos suyas Your; yours; his; hers; its nuestro nuestra nuestros nuestras Our; ours vuestro vuestra vuestros vuestras Your; yours suyo suya suyos suyas Your; yours; their; theirs Stressed Possessive Objects/ Pronouns

Subjunctive in Adjective:

Subjunctive in Adjective When the subordinate clause of a sentence refers to something that is known to exist, the indicative is used. It has this formula: Main Clause – Connector – Subordinate Clause When the antecedent of an adjective clause is a negative pronoun, the subjunctive is used as a subordinate clause. See subjunctive nouns slide for when to use/ more information

Reflexive Verbs:

Reflexive Verbs In a reflexive construction, the subject of the verb both performs and receives the action. Reflexive verbs always use reflexive pronouns: me, te , se, nos os , se An example is lavar or lavarse . Elena se lava la cara is reflexive. Elena lava los platos is not reflexive. Lavarse Yo me lavo Tu te lavas Ud . Se lava Nos lavamos Os lav ais Uds . se levan When the sentence has two verbs, the pronoun can be placed directly before the conjugated verb or attached to the end of the infinitive I want to see myself. Me quiero ver. Quiero verme . aburrir - to bore aburrirse - to be bored acordar - to agree acordarse de - to remember acostar - to put to bed acostarse - to go to bed casar - to perform a marriage ceremony casarse con - to become married to someone despedir - to fire despedirse de - to say goodbye dormir - to sleep dormirse - to fall asleep ir - to go irse - to go away, to leave morir - to die (abruptly, as of an accident, war, etc.) morirse - to die (as from natural causes; also "to die" figuratively) negar - to deny negarse a - to refuse parecer - to seem parecerse a - to resemble poner - to put ponerse - to put on probar - to try, to taste probarse - to try on quitar - to take away quitarse - to take off For some verbs, the meaning changes when they are used reflexively.