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global warming : 

global warming By jelani

Slide 2: 

Global warming and climate change is looked at in this section of the global issues web site. Introduced are some of the effects of climate change. In addition, this section attempts to provide insights into what governments, companies, international institutions, and other organizations are attempting to do about this issue, as well as the challenges they face. Some of the major conferences in recent years are also discussed.

Fossil fuels : 

Fossil fuels Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, carbon or hydrocarbons found in the earth’s crust. Fossil fuel range from volatile materials with low carbon:hydrogen ratios like methane, to liquid petroleum to nonvolatile materials composed of almost pure carbon, like anthracite coal. Methane can be found in hydrocarbon fields, alone, associated with oil, or in the form of methane clathrates. It is generally accepted that they formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals[1] by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earth's crust over hundreds of millions of years.[2] This biogenic theory was first introduced by Georg Agricola in 1556 and later by Mikhail Lomonosov in 2008 It was estimated by the Energy Information Administration that in 2006 primary sources of energy consisted of petroleum 36.8%, coal 26.6%, natural gas 22.9%, amounting to an 86% share for fossil fuels in primary energy production in the world. Non-fossil sources included hydroelectric 6.3%, nuclear 6.0%, and (geothermal, solar, wind, wood waste) amounting 0.9 percent.[3] World energy consumption was growing about 2.3% per year. Fossil fuels are non-renewable resources because they take millions of years to form, and reserves are being depleted much faster than new ones are being formed. Concern about fossil fuel supplies is one of the causes of regional and global conflicts. The production and use of fossil fuels raise environmental concerns. A global movement toward the generation of renewable energy is therefore under way to help meet increased energy needs. The burning of fossil fuels produces around 21.3 billion tons (21.3 gigatons) of carbon dioxide per year, but it is estimated that natural processes can only absorb about half of that amount, so there is a net increase of 10.65 billion tones of atmospheric carbon dioxide per year (one tonne of atmospheric carbon is equivalent to 44/12 or 3.7 tons of carbon dioxide).[4] Carbon dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases that enhances radiative forcing and contributes to global warming, causing the average surface temperature of the Earth to rise in response, which climate scientists agree will cause major adverse effects, including reduced biodiversity.

the global warming myth : 

the global warming myth The most respected scientific bodies have stated unequivocally that global warming is occurring, and people are causing it by burning fossil fuels (like coal, oil and natural gas) and cutting down forests. The U.S. National Academy of Sciences, which in 2005 the White House called "the gold standard of objective scientific assessment," issued a joint statement with 10 other National Academies of Science saying "the scientific understanding of climate change is now sufficiently clear to justify nations taking prompt action. It is vital that all nations identify cost-effective steps that they can take now, to contribute to substantial and long-term reduction in net global greenhouse gas emissions." (Joint Statement of Science Academies

Types of Solar Energy : 

Types of Solar Energy · Solar Cells – Most of us have seen solar cells used on calculators with LCDs. But they have also been used in many other ways. Solar cells use semiconductors (oftentimes, silicon) to generate electricity, directly from the sunlight. · Solar Fibers – This is also a photovoltaic device (like the solar cells), only it does not use silicon. Rather, it has a solar tape that is made with titanium dioxide. This tape could actually be combined with building materials or even clothing. · Solar Pond – A solar pond is made of three layers: the top layer as low salt content. The middle layer is an insulating layer with salt, and it prevents natural convection in the water (which would normally cause heat exchange). The bottom layer as a very high salt content, and this layer can approach high temperatures. Because of all the densities in salt of the different layers, there are no convection currents (which normally transfer heat to the surface and then the air). The heat that gets trapped in the bottom layer can be used to heat buildings, generate electricity, or in industrial processes. · Solar Chemical – There are a number of different solar energy processes that absorb sunlight in a chemical reaction to create that solar energy. More research is needed on solar chemical energy before we can apply it practically. Much of this research is on photoelectrolysis of water. · Solar Updraft Tower – This is a type of solar energy plant in which air passes under an agricultural glass house, gets heated by the sun, and is then channel up toward a convection tower. It is used to drive turbines which generate electricity

Types of Solar Energy2 : 

Types of Solar Energy2 · Energy Tower – This tower uses water, unfortunately, but it is also a good design and works in a similar way to the solar updraft tower. Water is sprayed at the top of the water. The water evaporates which causes a downdraft by cooling the air. This coolness increases the density of the air and then drives turbines that are at the bottom of the tower. These are just a few ways in which solar energy has been and is being created. Perhaps the most common household type of solar energy is that created by solar cells. Nonetheless, these other types are very promising and certainly have their place.

SAVING ENERGY : 

SAVING ENERGY 1. Replace all incandescent light bulbs with compact flourescent bulbs or CFL light capsules. They can save 60% of the electricity used in lighting. Look for CFL's that have an Energy Star rating on the package. CFL's with the Energy Star rating do not have the problems which many people associate with flourescent lighting such as flickering or color problems. Some of the cheaper CFL's without the rating still do have problems...2. Replace traditional ‘nightlights' with LED nightlights. These glow with a soft blue or green light and use only 2-3 watts per year instead of the 10-15 watts per hour regular nightlights use.3. To reduce electricity use in the future, find out what you are using now. You may be surprised. Invest in a "Kil-A-Watt" meter, available many places on the Internet for $40, and begin measuring everything in the house to see how much power they use.

how does global warming cause climate change : 

how does global warming cause climate change The climate is changing. The earth is warming up, and there is now overwhelming scientific consensus that it is happening, and human-induced. With global warming on the increase and species and their habitats on the decrease, chances for ecosystems to adapt naturally are diminishing. Many are agreed that climate change may be one of the greatest threats facing the planet. Recent years show increasing temperatures in various regions, and/or increasing extremities in weather patterns. This section looks at what causes climate change, what the impacts are and where scientific consensus currently is.

Things To Do To Stop Global Warming1 : 

Things To Do To Stop Global Warming1 Replace a regular incandescent light bulb with a compact fluorescent light bulb (cfl)CFLs use 60% less energy than a regular bulb. This simple switch will save about 300 pounds of carbon dioxide a year.We recommend you purchase your CFL bulbs at 1000bulbs.com, they have great deals on both screw-in and plug-in light bulbs.

Things To Do To Stop Global Warming 2 : 

Things To Do To Stop Global Warming 2 Do not leave appliances on standbyUse the "on/off" function on the machine itself. A TV set that's switched on for 3 hours a day (the average time Europeans spend watching TV) and in standby mode during the remaining 21 hours uses about 40% of its energy in standby mode.

Things To Do To Stop Global Warming 3 : 

Things To Do To Stop Global Warming 3 Cover your pots while cookingDoing so can save a lot of the energy needed for preparing the dish. Even better are pressure cookers and steamers: they can save around 70%!