Instructional strategy research and demonstration

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Instructional strategy research and demonstration : 

Instructional strategy research and demonstration By John P. Wilkerson

Table of Contents : 

Table of Contents Instructional Strategy: Discrete Teaching Trials When Learning Occurs Grade 5 State Standards in Social Science and Science FPI Standards for Listening and Speaking Using Discrete Trials to meet state standards

DISCRETE TEACHING TRIALS : 

DISCRETE TEACHING TRIALS A discrete teaching trail consists of a concise and consistent instruction or question, the child’s response, and a specific consequence, the nature of which is determined by the child’s response (Schreibamm, 2000, p. 374). Learning trials form the basis of all systemic instruction, regardless of the type of student or the skill taught (Snell and Brown, 2008, p.155).

DISCRETE TRIALS CONT : 

DISCRETE TRIALS CONT Teaching is a process of organizing student experience so that target behaviors come under control of new and different stimulus conditions; this process that involves establishing and transferring stimulus control over repeated learning trials (Wolery et al., 1992, p. 202). A discrete teaching trial can be represented as follows: Discriminative stimulus-> Student response-> Consequence for response. (Snell and Brown, 2008, pg 157)

LEARNING OCCURS : 

LEARNING OCCURS Learning is most likely to occur (a) when the target behavior is reinforced in the presence of desired stimulus, and (b) when target behavior is performed but not reinforced whenever the desired stimulus is not present (Snell and Brown, 2008, p. 157).

SOCIAL SCIENE STANDARDS GRADE 5 : 

SOCIAL SCIENE STANDARDS GRADE 5 5.2 Students trace the routes of early explorers and describe the early explorations of the Americas. 5.2 # 3 Trace the routes of the major land explorers of the United States, the distances traveled by explorers, and the Atlantic trade routes that linked Africa, the West Indies, the British colonies, and Europe. 5.2 # 4 Locate on maps of North and South America land claimed by Spain, France, England, Portugal, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Russia.

GRADE 5 EARTH SCIENCE STANDARDS : 

GRADE 5 EARTH SCIENCE STANDARDS 3. Water on Earth moves between the oceans and land through the processes of evaporation and condensation. As a basis for understanding this concept: a. Students know most of Earth’s water is present as salt water in the oceans, which cover most of Earth’s surface. b. Students know when liquid water evaporates, it turns into water vapor in the air and can reappear as a liquid when cooled or as a solid if cooled below the freezing point of water. c. Students know water vapor in the air moves from one place to another and can form fog or clouds, which are tiny droplets of water or ice, and can fall to Earth as rain, hail, sleet, or snow.

LISTENING AND SPEAKING FPI FOR GRADE 6 : 

LISTENING AND SPEAKING FPI FOR GRADE 6 1.0 LISTENING AND SPEAKING STRATEGIES: Students deliver focused, coherent presentations that convey ideas clearly and relate to the background and interests of the audience. They evaluate the content of oral communication. 1.3 Comprehension: Restate and execute multiple-step oral instructions and directions. A Execute two- or three-step oral instructions and directions. 1. Will respond appropriately when given two or three-step directions using verbal, signed, gesture or picture cues (e.g., “sit down and get your pencil”, “open the refrigerator and take out the milk”, “put clothes in the washing machine, add soap and start it”, “dry your hands and put the paper towel in the trash”, “choose a book, take it to your desk, open it”).

Discrete Trial : 

Discrete Trial The following is how to use the Discrete Trial Method to meet Social Science 5.2 # 3 Trace the routes of the major land explorers of the United States, the distances traveled by explorers, and the Atlantic trade routes that linked Africa, the West Indies, the British colonies, and Europe. The student will trace the routes ten trial times and then they will be given reward if done correctly in eight of the ten trials. For this assignment students will be given a three step direction First locate the route, then pick up marker to trace and then trace the route.

DISCRETE TRIAL SOCIAL SCIENCE : 

DISCRETE TRIAL SOCIAL SCIENCE 5.2 # 4 Locate on maps of North and South America land claimed by Spain, France, England, Portugal, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Russia. Student will use a color coated map that were blue represents England, red represents Russia, Green represents Netherlands, Yellow represents Sweden, and Orange represents Portugal Students then will be asked to point to the correct part of the map in discrete trial of ten teaching trials.

EXAMPLE OF MAP DISCRETE TRIAL : 

EXAMPLE OF MAP DISCRETE TRIAL Teacher asked to student to point to a part of the map that Russia owned. Student then locates it on the map by pointing to the correct or incorrect location. The response from teacher would be you got it right “great job” or nice try but lets try it again.

DISCRETE TRIAL SCIENCE : 

DISCRETE TRIAL SCIENCE Earth science standard# 3C. Students will be given picture cards of the water cycle and then they will be asked to put them in the correct order. The teacher asks the students to put them in the correct Student tries to put in the correct order Teacher responds with either that’s correct good job or lets try that again and the trial will last ten trial times.

DISCRETE TRIAL SCIENCE : 

DISCRETE TRIAL SCIENCE Students will cut and paste the water evaporation cycle. The students will follow a three step direction first cut the steps of the cycle then put them in order and finally glue them to paper in the correct order. Students will do this in teaching trial of five trials. Teacher then will responded by saying that is right and “good job” or if incorrect nice try but lets try that again.

VIDEO SAMPLE OF ABA DISCRETE TRIAL : 

VIDEO SAMPLE OF ABA DISCRETE TRIAL This is a link to the video example of how to do a discrete trail. Please cut and paste link for video. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9e7R6Mn79VU&feature=player_embedded#!

CONCLUSION : 

CONCLUSION Using the discrete trial method is a very effective strategy in teaching students moderate to severe disabilities. This lesson plan if used correctly will cover the California State Standards in social science and science as well the FPI’s.

REFERENCES : 

REFERENCES History and Social Science California State Standards. California Department of Education. Retrieved From www.cde.ca.gov. Schreibman, L. (2000). Intensive behavioral/psychoeducational treatments for autism: Research needs and future directions. Journal of Autism and Development Disorders, 30, 373-381 Science Content Standards for California Public Schools Kindergarten through twelve grade. California Department of Education. Retrieved from www.cde.ca.gov. Snell, M. E. & Brown, F. (2007). Instruction of students with severe disabilities, (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Pearson Wolery, M., Ault, M. J. & Doyle, P.M. (1992). Teaching students with moderate to severe disabilities. New York: Longman

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