Grammar Book SP3H

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Grammar Book SP3H:

Grammar Book SP3H Por José Shaw Cuarto Periodo

Table of Contents:

Table of Contents Imperfect Tense Preterit Tense Por and Para Stressed Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns Usted Commands Present Subjunctive Subjunctive with Verbs of Will and Influence Subjunctive with verbs of Emotion, Doubt, Disbelief, and Denial Subjunctive with Conjunctions Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses Tú Commands Nosotros Commands Past Participles used as Adjectives Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Tense Conditional Tense Past Subjunctive

Imperfect Tense:

Imperfect Tense Use of the imperfect tense implies that the action does not have a definite starting or ending point, or is not yet completed. Additionally, use this tense when the action is habitual, or if time is being told. Irregulars: Ser, Ir, Ver Endings for –ar Verbs (ex: trabajar) trabaj aba trabaj ábamos trabaj abas trabaj abais trabaj aba trabaj aban Endings for –er/ir Verbs (ex: comer) com ía com íamos com ías com íais com ía com ían

Preterit Tense:

Preterit Tense The preterit tense is used for an action that occurred in the past and had a definite start and finish. It is seen as a snapshot in time. There are a plethera of irregulars for the preterit, including: Ser, Ir, Dar, and Hacer Endings for –ar Verbs (ex: pasar) pas é pas amos pas aste pas ó pas aron Endings for –er/ir Verbs (ex: comer) com í com imos com iste com ió com ieron

Por and Para:

Por and Para Generally, “por” will be used in the past tense whereas “para” will generally be used in the present or future. Por is used for: general location, duration of an action, object of a search, when used to mean “by”, exchange, and units of measure Para is used for: destinations, deadlines, to mean “in order to”, purposes / goals, recipient of an action, comparisons, and employment.

Stressed Possessive Adjectives / Pronouns:

Stressed Possessive Adjectives / Pronouns Mine = el mío / la mía / los míos / las mías Yours = el tuyo / la tuya / los tuyos / las tuyas His / Hers = el suyo / la suya / los suyos / las suyas Ours = el nuestro / la nuestra / los nuestros / las nuestras Theirs = el suyo / la suya / los suyos / las suyas The gender and presence of “s” at the end is dependent on the object(s), not the speaker.

Usted Commands:

Usted Commands These are the most formal of the commands Usted commands are developed in the same way as the subjunctive. Steps: Drop the “o” from the end of the “yo” form Add “e” or “en” to –ar verbs Add “a” or “an” to –er / ir verbs Any irregularities in the “yo” form are carried to the usted command; such as: Tener, Venir, etc. Stem changers continue to stem change Irregulars include: dar, estar, ir, ser, and saber

Present Subjunctive:

Present Subjunctive Use the subjunctive tense to show how one feels about an action. Trigger Word: que Irregulars in the “yo” form of the present tense will be irregular in the subjunctive. Conocer -> Conozca Tener -> Tenga Salir -> Salga Endings for –ar Verbs (ex: hablar) hable hablemos hables hable hablen Endings for –er/ir Verbs (ex: comer) coma comamos comas coma coman

Subjunctive Part 1 Subjunctive with Verbs of Will and Influence:

Subjunctive Part 1 Subjunctive with Verbs of Will and Influence Trigger Phrases Esperar que To wish that Preferir que To prefer that Querer que To want that Es necesario que It is necessary that Recomendar que To recommend that

Subjunctive Part 2 The Subjunctive with Words of Emotion:

Subjunctive Part 2 The Subjunctive with Words of Emotion Use the subjunctive when you are expressing an emotion that is subjective. Examples: Me triste que Wilfredo no reciba una grado bueno en el examen de matematicas. I am sad that Wesley didn’t receive a good grade on the math test.

Subjunctive Part 3 The Subjunctive with Doubt, Disbelief, and Denial:

Subjunctive Part 3 The Subjunctive with Doubt, Disbelief, and Denial Use the subjunctive when expressing uncertainty. However, this doesn’t go both ways. Do not use the subjunctive when you express certainty. Instead, use the indicative.

Subjunctive Part 4 The Subjunctive with Conjunctions:

Subjunctive Part 4 The Subjunctive with Conjunctions The subjunctive can also be used with conjunctions. Examples: Yo me gusta hamburguesas a menos que sean fresco. Conjunctions that use the Subjunctive A fin de que So that A menos que Unless Antes de que Before Con tal de que Provided that En caso de que En case that Para que So that Sin que without

Subjunctive Part 5 Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses:

Subjunctive Part 5 Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses If the noun or pronoun is ambiguous or otherwise unspecific, use the subjunctive. Ex: Es una empresa que compre hamburguesas? Generally, words like “un” or “una” will trigger said noun being vague, thus leading to use of the subjunctive.

Tú Commands:

Tú Commands

Nosotros Commands:

Nosotros Commands

Past Participles Used as Adjectives:

Past Participles Used as Adjectives

Present Perfect Tense:

Present Perfect Tense

Past Perfect Tense:

Past Perfect Tense

Future Tense:

Future Tense

Conditional Tense:

Conditional Tense

Past Subjunctive Tense:

Past Subjunctive Tense