Grammar Book

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Grammar Book Por: Jesus Goharioon:

Grammar Book Por : Jesus Goharioon

Table of Contents:

Table of Contents 1) Nationalities 10) verbs like gustar 2) Stem- Changing Verbs 11 ) affirmitive and negative 3) Para 12 ) pero vs. sino 4) Adjectives 13) DOP/IOP/SE 5) object pronoun placement 14 ) Reflexive Verbs 6) Direct Object Pronouns 15 ) Tu commands affirmative / negative / irregulars 16) Los adverbios 7) Indirect Object Pronoun 17) deber & modal verbs 8) ser vs. Estar 18) Past participles as adj 9) -ismo and g/c/s


Nationalities Mexicano * Dominicano * Chileno * Italiano Guatemalteco * Puertorrique *no * Argentino * Franc* es Hondure *no * Venezolano * Uruguayo * Ingl * es Salvore *no * Colombiano * Espa * nol * Latino Nicarag * uense * Ecuatoriano * Guineano * Hispano Costarricense * Peruano * Canadiense Paname *no * Paraguayo * Estadounidense Cubano * Boliviano * Norteamericano

Stem-Changing Verbs:

Stem-Changing Verbs - ar verbs - er verbs o as a amos ais an o es e emos eis en Poder : to be able to dormir : to sleep almorazar : to have lunch contar : to count recordar : to remember costar: to count -Ir Verbs o imos


Para Para is for or in order to El regalo para mi mama uses: for the purpose of/ in order to for the benifit of in the direction of by or for

Object pronoun placement :

Object pronoun placement in affirmative, the dop comes before the verb​ Yo te quiero ​ in infinitves and past participles the dop can attach to the end of the verb or before the first verb​ Voy a hacer la / La voy a hacer

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ends in "e" -> add "s" ends in a constant -> add " es " s p mo - os / es p-a -as Adjectivos

Direct Object Pronouns:

Direct Object Pronouns

Indirect Object Pronouns:

Indirect Object Pronouns

ser vs. estar:

ser vs. estar to be ser estar characterisitcs express possesion express origin express profession soy, eres, es, somos, sois, son emotions location physical condition generalizations Time/Date Something is made of where/when an event takes place health ongoing actions certain weather expressions

-ismo and g/c/s:

-ismo and g/c/s feliz -> felcisimo c -> qu rico -> riquisimo g -> gu largo -> larguisimo z -> c

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gusta/gustan molestar: to bother / annoy aburrir: to bore quedar : to be left over encontrar: to love faltar: to lack fascinar: to fascinate importar: to matter interesar: to interest verbs like gustar

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negative nada: nothing nadie : nobody ninguno (a): none nunca : never tampoco : neither ni .. ni : neither.. nor Affirmative and Negative

Pero vs Sino:

Pero vs Sino pero : but sino : but Sino is only used if first part of sentence is negative and the second poart contradicts the first .


DOP/IOP/SE DO Pronouns IO Pronouns me me te te lo, la le nos nos os os los, las les When you have both a direct object pronoun and an indirect object pronoun in the same sentence, the indirect object pronoun comes first. Whenever both pronouns begin with the letter "l" change the first pronoun to "se

Reflexive Verbs:

Reflexive Verbs Lola lava los platos . Lola se lava cara me te se nos os se

Tu Affirmative/ Negative/ Irregulars:

Tu Affirmative/ Negative/ Irregulars irregular : Tu affirmative : Tu Negative : di- decir 1) drop the "s" 1 ) put in yo form naz - hacer 2) change to opposite vowel ve- ir/ver ar -> e er /ir -> a pon- poner 3) add "s" sal- salir se- ser ten-tener ven-venir

Los Adverbos -Mente:

Los Adverbos -Mente When an adjective ends in an e, l, or z, simply add - mente to the end. Reciente Cuidadoso Cuidados amente Lento Lent amente Feliz Feliz mente Normal Normal mente Tranquil amente Especial Especial mente Tranquillo reciente mente

Deber + Modal Verbs:

Deber + Modal Verbs Helping verbs 2nd is not conjugated Desear : to need Poder : to be able to Querer : want Deber + Infinitive (should do something) Poder + Infinitive (able to do something)


Preterite - e - amos - aste -o - aron - i - imos - iste - io - ieron

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agree in gender and number ​ La puerta estan cerrada ​ Las puertas estan cerradas Past Participles as Adjectives

Works cited:

Works cited ​ ​​