Astronomy 1.1

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For year 1, week 1

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Solar System Intro:

Solar System Intro Planets, Moons and Stars

What is Our Solar System?:

What is Our Solar System? Our solar system is the system of planets and other objects that orbit our sun. There are eight planets and many moons . Along with asteroids , comets , meteoroids and tiny particles of rocks and dust. The sun , which is actually a star , is the largest object in the solar system and holds everything in place by its gravity . It contains about 99% of the mass of the solar system.

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A planet is a body that is in orbit around the Sun, has enough mass for its self-gravity to overcome forces (nearly round) shape, and clears the neighborhood around its orbit. Planet order (closest to the sun to furthest): MERCURY VENUS EARTH MARS JUPITOR SATURN URANUS NEPTUNE PLANETS

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Position: Closest planet to the Sun. Atmosphere: Like Earth’s moon, very little. Landscape: Many craters, a little ice. Cliffs and valleys present. Temperatures: Super-heated by the sun in the day. At night temperatures reach hundreds of degrees below freezing. (Not as warm as you would think). Year (Full rotation around the sun): 88 days. Moons: 0 Rings: 0 Mercury

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Position: 2 nd planet from the sun. Atmosphere: Thick enough to trap heat, hurricane winds, lightning, and acid clouds. Landscape: Volcanoes and deformed mountains. Temperatures: Intense heat. Year (Full rotation around the sun): 225 Earth days. Moons: 0 Rings: 0

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Position: 3rd planet from the sun. Atmosphere: Suitable air pressure to have life. Air is made of oxygen. Landscape: The only planet that has liquid on the surface, rocky, land formations. Temperatures: Suitable for life. Ranges from locations on Earth. Year (Full rotation around the sun): 365 Earth days. Moons: 1 Rings: 0 EARTH

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Position: 4th planet from the sun. Atmosphere: Thinner air than Earth. Landscape: Frozen water below the surface, rocky, dusty, and has craters. Temperatures: Like Earth, but drier and colder Year (Full rotation around the sun): 687 Earth days. Moons: 2 Rings: 0 Midnight sun on Mars Mars

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Position: 5th planet from the sun. Atmosphere: Colorful clouds, until it is squished unto liquid. Cold and windy, giant storms. Landscape: Thick super hot soup. Temperatures: Extremely cold at clouds. Extremely hot and cold radiation. Year (Full rotation around the sun): 12 Earth years. Moons: 62 Rings: 3 Jupiter

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Position: 7th planet from the sun. Atmosphere: Composed mostly of gas with no solid surface. Cloud strips. Landscape: No solid surfaces, high pressures turn gas into liquids. Temperatures: Rings made out of water ice, really cold. Year (Full rotation around the sun): 30 Earth years. Moons: 61 Rings: 7 division ring system Saturn

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Position: 7 th planet from the sun. Atmosphere: Gets thicker and thicker, until it is squished unto liquid. Cold and windy. Landscape: Layer of superheated water and gases that form bright clouds. Temperatures: Extremely cold at cloud tops and superheated towards the center. Year (Full rotation around the sun): 84 Earth years. Moons: 27 Rings: 11 Uranus

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Position: Furthest from the sun (Cannot see without a microscope). 8 th planet. Atmosphere: Very Windy, cold clouds, a layer of methane gas (giving it a blue color), storms as large Earth. Landscape: Scientist think it may have an ocean of super hot lava. Temperatures: Cold Year (Full rotation around the sun): 165 Earth years. Moons: 13 Rings: 6 NEPTUNE

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Pluto is NOT considered a planet anymore! It is classified as a dwarf planet . Temperatures: Extremely cold, covered with frost. Year (Full rotation around the sun): 248 Earth years. Moons: 3 Pluto is very hard to see, if with a really powerful microscope. Think of Pluto as Disney’s dog, NOT a planet! Pluto

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The sun is a star . A ball of hot glowing gases. It gets hotter as you go deeper. Central force that has a high influence on planets orbits. Without the sun’s energy and heat there would be no life on Earth. Sun

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Stabilizes Earth. Our moon is covered in craters and has no atmosphere. No gravity and no air. Very hot and very cold temperatures. Pieces of equipment lie on the moon-things like the American flag! Fake-coloring to show landscape Earth’s Moon

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New Moon - The Moon's un-illuminated side is facing the Earth. The Moon is not visible (except during a solar eclipse). Waxing Crescent - The Moon appears to be partly but less than one-half illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is increasing. First Quarter - One-half of the Moon appears to be illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is increasing. Waxing Gibbous - The Moon appears to be more than one-half but not fully illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is increasing. Moon Phases

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Full Moon - The Moon's illuminated side is facing the Earth. The Moon appears to be completely illuminated by direct sunlight. Waning Gibbous - The Moon appears to be more than one-half but not fully illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is decreasing. Last Quarter - One-half of the Moon appears to be illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is decreasing. Waning Crescent - The Moon appears to be partly but less than one-half illuminated by direct sunlight. The fraction of the Moon's disk that is illuminated is decreasing. Moon Phases

In-Class Moon Phase Cookie Project:

In-Class Moon Phase Cookie Project

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A star is a huge, shining ball in space that produces a large amount of light and energy. Stars come in many sizes. About 75% are apart of groups that orbit each other. They are grouped in large structures called galaxies . (Milky Way). Stars have life-cycles like humans. A stars color depends on surface temperature. Star

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Constellations are groupings of stars that make an imaginary image in the night sky. They have been named after mythological characters, people, animals and objects. In different parts of the world, people have made up different shapes out of the same groups of bright stars. It is like a game of connecting the dots. In the past constellations have became useful for navigating at night and for keeping track of the seasons. Constellations

Constellation Project:

Constellation Project Choose your favorite constellation. Research your constellation. The writing portion should be two paragraphs long. One for your made-up myth, the other for a real myth. Don’t forget to proofread your paragraphs! 

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What is the solar system? How many planets do we currently have? Draw a diagram of planet placement and list the planets in order from the closest to the furthest from the sun. Can you list the characteristics of planet Earth? What are the phases of the moon? (Draw a picture to help in explanation). Can a star die? What were constellations used for? What is the sun? Review Questions and Concepts:

Images obtained by::

Images obtained by: http://scienceclass.ning.com http://www.astronomycast.com http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/clipart http://www.toonpool.com/cartoons http://www.cartoonstock.com http://anitadiminuta.com/images http://asymptotia.com http://www.thelivingmoon.com http://offthemark.com http://thumbs.dreamstime.com http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/images/Jupiter.gif