Mediterranean World2

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The Geography & People of the Mediterranean World By: Bill & Cristy McCandless Kirby & Ali Montgomery Steve & Rachael Smith :

The Geography & People of the Mediterranean World By: Bill & Cristy McCandless Kirby & Ali Montgomery Steve & Rachael Smith

The Geography:

The Geography

The Roman Empire:

The Roman Empire

The Mediterranean Sea:

The Mediterranean Sea The Roman Empire surrounds the Mediterranean Sea

Antioch and Pompey (Pompeii):

Antioch and Pompey (Pompeii) Antioch It is the 3rd largest city in the empire. It is called "The Pearl of the East" Pompey The capital of the eastern empire.

The Apostle Paul's Missionary Journeys:

The Apostle Paul's Missionary Journeys

3 Southern Provinces of Asia Minor (Modern Day Turkey):

3 Southern Provinces of Asia Minor (Modern Day Turkey) Paul established churches in all three provinces. Cilicia is Paul's home province. He is from the city of Tarsus. Galatia- capital city Ephesus Asia

Northern Provinces the region known as Anatolia :

Northern Provinces the region known as Anatolia Provinces of -Pontus -Galatia -Cappadocia -Asia -Bithynia -Macedonia -Achaia

PowerPoint Presentation:

Cappadocia Macedonia (Present Day Northern Greece & parts of Macedonia & Albania) Macedonia included the cities Thessalonica & Philippi which were principle metropolian centers along the Via Egnatia Philippi Thessalonica

PowerPoint Presentation:

Corinth Cenchrae was the port city of Corinth on the Aegean Sea Achaia Province Present day southern Greece

Travels by Land Roman Road known as Via Egnatia :

Travels by Land Roman Road known as Via Egnatia

PowerPoint Presentation:

Main Highways Via Egnatia Via Appia "Queen of Roads" Cilician Road Land travel was arduous. It could be dangerous especially in isolated areas. Paul would have traveled with others for protection and to help carry possessions. A person could travel about 15 - 20 miles a day on foot. Signposts called Milaria (mile markers) were strategically placed, as well as Itineraria which informed travelers about distances between cities and places to stop. Inns were known for bad food and wine. The company was worse. Travelers preferred to stay in private homes of friends and patrons. The virtue of hospitality was highly prized in the first century.

Travels by Sea:

Travels by Sea The main sea is the Mediterranean Sea The smaller seas in the surrounding area are: Aegean Sea Black Sea Adriatic Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Benefits versus Dangers of the Sea They traveled on cargo vessels Sea travel was much faster than land travel. With favorable winds a ship could travel 100 miles per day. But sea travel was more precarious. With contrary winds it could slow the pace considerably. Storms were treacherous and shipwrecks were common. Pirates were also a concern. October - May the sea lanes shutdown Seamen were superstitious and would not travel on illomened days such as Friday the 13th.

The People:

The People

Language:

Language The common language in the Mediterranean is Greek The New Testament greek was known as Koin which means common. An educated person would have spoken both latin and greek. Those who did not speak greek were known as barbarians.

Order of Society:

Order of Society Slaves were the lowest people in society Freedmen and women known as Libertini were above the slaves. They were former slaves. To be free means they were born free. This is the highest status. Romans recognized that every person had his or her place within the established order. One’s position was determined by whether they were free or slave, wealthy or not, and were a citizen or foreigner. Great honor was given to those with higher status.

The Practice of Slavery:

The Practice of Slavery Slavery was widely practiced. Within Italy there was approximately 1 slave for 3 free people. Other parts were not as high. A wealthy person would own hundreds of slaves. The number of slaves became an indicator of a person's status. Slaves were human property called "a living tool" and were bought and sold as any other commodity. The master had complete dominion over the slave.

The Practice of Slavery (cont.):

Free people could become a slave if they were captured as prisoners of war or were kidnapped and sold into slavery. Some sold themselves or their children because they could not repay a debt. Unwanted children, especially females, were left out exposed either to die or be found by strangers. Those strangers would then in turn raise the child and sell them. Slaves could be given ID collars, so if they ran away they could be returned. The Practice of Slavery (cont.)

How Could Slaves Be Freed?:

How Could Slaves Be Freed? Slaves could obtain freedom ( a process called manumission ) and they could join the ranks of libertini or Freedmen. A former slave, even if attaining wealth, could not completely remove the stigma of having been a slave. Some freed themselves by saving gifts. Sometimes family and friends would free them. Masters freed slaves to impress others with their wealth and some freed them in their wills. Some would free females to marry them. Freedmen were granted citizenship and recognized with a beanie (a cap made of felt)

Slave Jobs :

Slave Jobs Construction Prostitutes Cleaners Painters Cooks Child Care Nurses Beauticians Barbers Doctors Midwives Some held positions of responsibility such as managers, while others were gladiators.

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Those born free enjoyed higher social status than slaves or freedmen and women. Not all free people were of the same social class. The two social classes were: The Humiliores - those classified as low birth and status The Honestiores - the high orders of society. They were given honor.

The Honestiores:

The Honestiores Senators - They were the highest class of aristocrats. They had great wealth of at least one million sesterces. Equestrians - Below senatorial order. They were Roman born citizens who accumulated wealth totaling at least 400,000 sesterces. Decurions - Freeborn aristocrats whose wealth totaled at least 100,000 sesterces.

The Humiliores:

The Humiliores There was no middle class. The economic gap between the Humiliores and the Honestiores was huge. Humiliores were free people (either born free or Libertini) who owned small farms or a business. Examples of their jobs consisted of barbers, moneylenders, potters, shippers, tanners, butchers, weavers, wine and oil makers, soldiers and other kinds of artisans. They were not considered virtuous due to their low status in society. Most of the people of the early church were of this social class or slaves.

Patrons & Clients:

Patrons & Clients Patronage was a central feature of the Roman world A client came under care and protection of the patron Clients rendered services to the patron A patrons social status was enhanced by their number of clients A patron could also be a client of someone of higher status Higher status clients were sometimes called “friends”

Citizens and Aliens:

Citizens and Aliens Ancient Romans could be born citizens Ancient Romans could purchase citizenship Freed slaves can be granted citizenship Service in the auxiliary military forces became citizens upon discharge Citizenship granted you a beheading vs. a crucifixion when found guilty of a crime

The Family The Role of the Father:

The Family The Role of the Father The hierarchical social structure within Roman society was also present in the family. The father of the family was known as the paterfamilias. He had absolute authority over the entire household. This included the spouse, children, extended family, and slaves. He held rights over the property and financial affairs. He determined whom the child could marry. He directed the religious life of the family.

Family Dynamics:

Family Dynamics Children were expected to obey their parents, especially their fathers, in a way similar to how a person would honor the gods. Fathers Were expected to discipline and be strict with their children. Fathers taught their sons a trade. Mothers Were considered to be more tender. She disciplined their children and were given respect by their children. They were the sole persons responsible for the education of their daughters in the skills of domestic life and moral development.

Marriage:

Marriage Marriages were arranged by the father. Children were obligated to their father even after they moved out of the family home. Women were commonly married early in their teens, while men entered marriage much later. Marriages were governed by contracts, which had to do primarily with economics and inheritance. Women had to remain faithful, while men were given wide latitude to satisfy their sexual desires outside of the family home. Women were expected to obey their husband, be faithful, worship only his gods, and manage the household well.

The Role of the Woman:

The Role of the Woman Traditional View versus the "New Woman" During the Roman period, the model of the "new woman" was emerging as many women found themselves with great wealth and less supervision by men who were absent during the war and on administrative duty. These women were more socially self-determined in many matters, including financial affairs, political participation, and even sexuality. While the Gospels and letters are sometimes viewed as advocates for traditional roles, the presence of women in the church who provided significant leadership shows that the church was advocating models that diverged from the extremes of the surrounding culture.

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