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Chapter 25: Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV/AIDS Created By: Jessi Cooke and Jessica Ketterer

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Indiana State Health Standards 10.1.9 Explain complex health terms and concepts.   Indiana State Health Standards 10.4.5 Research and analyze how public health policies and government regulations influence health promotion and disease prevention   10.1.2 Analyze how behavior can impact health maintenance and disease prevention.

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Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) - infectious diseases spread from person to person through sexual contact STDs: The Hidden Epidemic Epidemics are occurrences of diseases in which many people in the same place at the same time. Approximately 65 million people in the United States are living with an incurable STD; many cases are undiagnosed and untreated. Many people with STDs are asymptomatic, which means without symptoms. Lesson 1: The Risks of STIs

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Risks that can cause STDs: Being sexually active with more than one person- Even if you are only having sex with one person, you may still be unaware of your partners past behavior. Engaging in unprotected sex- Protection is not 100% effective in preventing the transmission of STDs Selecting high-risk partners- High-risk partners include people who’ve had sex with more than one person, and those who’ve injected illegal drugs Using alcohol and other drugs- Alcohol use can lower inhibitions; 25% of teens who have sex have been under the influence Lesson 1 (continued )

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Lesson 1: still continued The consequences of STDs: Some STDs are incurable Some STDs cause cancer Some STDs can cause complications that affect the ability to reproduce Some STDs can be passed from an infected female to her child before, during, or after birth Abstinence - abstinence - the deliberate decision to avoid harmful behaviors, including sexual activity before marriage and the use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs. lesson 1 interactive study guide flashcards

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Human Papillomavirus Human Papillomavirus – a virus that can cause genital warts or asymptomatic infection; also known as HPV HPV is considered to be the most common STD in the United States 50- 75% of sexually active males and females acquire HPV infection at some point in their lives Genital Warts – pink or reddish warts cauliflower like tops that appear on the genitals, the vagina, or the cervix one to three months after infection from HPV Highly contagious; spread by any form of sexual contact with and infected person Lesson 2: Common STIs

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Chlamydia - a bacterial infection that affects the reproductive organs of both males and females. It is diagnosed by laboratory examination of secretions from the cervix in females and from the urethra in males Genital Herpes - a STD caused by the herpes simplex virus Type 1 typically causes cold sores Type 2 usually causes genital sores Gonorrhea - a bacterial STD that usually affects mucous membranes Symptoms in males include discharge from penis and painful urination 50% of females who have gonorrhea have no symptoms; the 50% that do have vaginal discharge and pain or burning when urinating Lesson 2 (continued)

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Trichomoniasis - a STD caused by microscopic protozoan that results in infections of the vagina, urethra, and bladder Females have to symptoms; however, the disease may result in vaginitis - an inflammation of the vagina characterized by discharge, odor, irritation, and itching Syphillis - a STD that attacks many parts of the body and is caused by a small bacterium called a spirochete Eventually if not treated the disease can damage internal organs including the heart, liver, nervous system, and kidneys Lesson 2 (still continued) lesson 2 interactive study guide

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Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) - a disease in which the immune system of the patient is weakened AIDS cases are declining among the population as a whole, but there has been no decline in the number of diagnosed HIV infections Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - a virus that attacks the immune system Body becomes susceptible to common infections and to opportunistic infections - infections that occur in individuals who do not have healthy immune systems Lesson 3: HIV and AIDS

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How HIV is transmitted The HIV organism lives inside the cells and body fluids Sexual intercourse HIV can enter a partner’s blood through tiny cuts in the body Sharing needles A person with HIV shares needles or syringes with other people Mother to baby HIV in the mothers blood can be transmitted through the umbilical cord and during delivery Lesson 3 (continued) lesson 3 interactive study guide

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Stages of HIV infections Symptoms may include fever, rash, headache, body aches, and swollen glands Symptoms disappear within a week to a month and are often mistaken as other viral infections After flu-like symptoms disappear, the person enters the asymptomatic stage - a period of time during which a person infected with HIV has no symptoms Following the asymptomatic stage is the symptomatic stage - the stage in which a person infected with HIV has symptoms as a result of a severe drop in immune cells During the latter stage of HIV infections, more serious symptoms appear until the infection meets the official definition of AIDS Lesson 4: Treatment for HIV and AIDS

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Detecting HIV Individuals who think they may have been exposed to HIV should seek testing form a health care professional immediately EIA Test EIA - a test that screens for the presence of HIV antibodies in the blood Western Blot Test Western blot - or WB, is the most common confirmation test for HIV in the United States If done properly this test is 100% accurate Lesson 4 (continued)

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HIV/AIDS- A Continuing Problem: HIV is a fatal disease and has no cure At the end of 2002, an estimated 4 million people were infected with HIV/AIDS The statistic above means that HIV is now a pandemic - a global outbreak of infectious disease Abstinence and HIV/AIDS Avoid situations and events where drug use or the pressure to engage in sexual activity is likely to occur Practice refusal skills Choose relationships carefully Lesson 4 (still continued) lesson 4 interactive study guide

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www.mysexproblems.com/std.asp Glencoe Health book http://www.spunout.ie/uploads/images/condomkatje.jpg http://www.bidmc.harvard.edu/display.asp?leaf id=8268 Bibliography

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