Sentence Errors-Fragments, Run-Ons, and Comma Splices

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SENTENCE ERRORS: Fragments, Run-ons, and Comma Splices:

SENTENCE ERRORS: Fragments, Run-ons, and Comma Splices

SENTENCE FRAGMENTS Chapter 11, p. 199:

SENTENCE FRAGMENTS Chapter 11, p. 199

A sentence contains a subject, a verb, and a complete thought. Dan attended the pep rally before the football game.:

A sentence contains a subject , a verb , and a complete thought. Dan attended the pep rally before the football game.

Sometimes part of the sentence may be missing.:

Sometimes part of the sentence may be missing. Three little girls in the front row What’s missing? Ran behind the blue couch What’s missing? In the attic at the top of the stairs What’s missing?

When a group of words fails to tell:

When a group of words fails to tell who or what did something ( the subject ), what happened ( the verb ), and/or a complete thought (has a subject and verb but also a dependent word), it is a sentence fragment .

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A sentence fragment is only a piece of a sentence. It does not express a complete thought.

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Sat behind me in science class What’s missing?

Yes, we need a subject.:

Yes, we need a subject . The new girl sat behind me in science class.

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The bag of groceries on the kitchen table What’s missing?

Yes, we need a verb.:

Yes, we need a verb . The bag of groceries on the kitchen table spilled onto the floor.

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After the rain stopped What’s missing?

Yes, we have a subject and a verb, but we also have a dependent word. We need to delete the dependent word...:

Yes, we have a subject and a verb , but we also have a dependent word . We need to delete the dependent word... The rain stopped . After the rain stopped .

… or we need to attach this fragment to a complete clause.:

… or we need to attach this fragment to a complete clause. After the rain stopped , the children ran outside to play.

COMMON DEPENDENT WORDS:

COMMON DEPENDENT WORDS after although as as if because before even even though if once since so that though unless until what whatever when whenever where whereas whether while (p. 200)

RUN-ONS Chapter 10, p. 175:

RUN-ONS Chapter 10, p. 175

Run-ons:

Run-ons (also called fused sentences ) You are making a run-on when you put two complete clauses (S+V groups) in one sentence without any separation .

Run-ons:

Run-ons Here is an example of a run-on: My favorite Mediterranean food is hummus it is very garlicky. This one sentence actually contains two complete sentences. However, in the rush to get that idea out, I made it into one incorrect sentence.

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There are many ways to correct this run-on. 1. You could make it into two separate sentences : My favorite Mediterranean food is hummus . I t is very garlicky.

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There are many ways to correct this run-on. 2. You could use just a semicolon : My favorite Mediterranean food is hummus ; it is very garlicky.

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There are many ways to correct this run-on. 3. You could use a comma and a coordinating (FANBOYS) conjunction : My favorite Mediterranean food is hummus , for it is very garlicky. (You could also use a subordinating conjunction or a conjunctive adverb . We will cover both in a future class .)

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“ FANBOYS ” words (p. 181) : F OR A ND N OR B UT O R Y ET S O

COMMA SPLICES:

COMMA SPLICES

Comma splices:

Comma splices You CANNOT simply add a comma between the two sentences, or you'll end up with a " comma splice ." Here is an example of a comma splice: My favorite Mediterranean food is hummus , it is very garlicky.

Comma splices:

Comma splices You can fix a comma splice the same way you fix a run-on: 1. A period (two sentences) 2. Just a semicolon 3. A comma and a FANBOYS (and other ways we will discuss later)

SENTENCE ERRORS:

SENTENCE ERRORS Fragments happen when a word group is missing a subject, a verb, and/or a complete thought. Fused sentences (run-ons) happen when two clauses are joined incorrectly with no punctuation at all. Comma splices happen when two clauses are joined incorrectly with just a comma.

FORMULAS:

FORMULAS Complete sentence = S + V + complete thought. Examples = S + V . S + V . (2 sentences) = S + V ; S + V . (semicolon) = S + V , and S + V . (comma + = S + V , but S + V . FANBOYS)

FORMULAS:

FORMULAS Fragment = Because + S + V . (dep. word) Run-on (fused sent.) = S + V + S + V . Comma splice = S + V , S + V .