1 Introduction to Finite Automata Languages Deterministic Finite Automata Representations of Automata

Alphabets:

2 Alphabets An alphabet is any finite set of symbols. Examples : ASCII, Unicode, {0,1} ( binary alphabet ), {a,b,c}.

Strings:

3 Strings The set of strings over an alphabet Σ is the set of lists, each element of which is a member of Σ . Strings shown with no commas, e.g., abc. Σ * denotes this set of strings. ε stands for the empty string (string of length 0).

Example: Strings:

4 Example : Strings {0,1}* = { ε , 0, 1, 00, 01, 10, 11, 000, 001, . . . } Subtlety : 0 as a string, 0 as a symbol look the same. Context determines the type.

Languages:

5 Languages A language is a subset of Σ * for some alphabet Σ . Example : The set of strings of 0’s and 1’s with no two consecutive 1’s. L = { ε , 0, 1, 00, 01, 10, 000, 001, 010, 100, 101, 0000, 0001, 0010, 0100, 0101, 1000, 1001, 1010, . . . } Hmm… 1 of length 0, 2 of length 1, 3, of length 2, 5 of length 3, 8 of length 4. I wonder how many of length 5?

Deterministic Finite Automata:

6 Deterministic Finite Automata A formalism for defining languages, consisting of: A finite set of states (Q, typically). An input alphabet ( Σ , typically). A transition function ( δ , typically). A start state (q 0 , in Q, typically). A set of final states (F ⊆ Q, typically). “Final” and “accepting” are synonyms.

The Transition Function:

7 The Transition Function Takes two arguments: a state and an input symbol. δ (q, a) = the state that the DFA goes to when it is in state q and input a is received.

Graph Representation of DFA’s :

8 Graph Representation of DFA’s Nodes = states. Arcs represent transition function. Arc from state p to state q labeled by all those input symbols that have transitions from p to q. Arrow labeled “Start” to the start state. Final states indicated by double circles.

Example: Graph of a DFA:

9 Example : Graph of a DFA Start 1 0 A C B 1 0 0,1 Previous string OK, does not end in 1. Previous String OK, ends in a single 1. Consecutive 1’s have been seen. Accepts all strings without two consecutive 1’s.

Alternative Representation: Transition Table:

10 Alternative Representation: Transition Table 0 1 A A B B A C C C C Rows = states Columns = input symbols Final states starred * * Arrow for start state

Extended Transition Function:

11 Extended Transition Function We describe the effect of a string of inputs on a DFA by extending δ to a state and a string. Induction on length of string. Basis : δ (q, ε ) = q Induction : δ (q,wa) = δ ( δ (q,w),a) w is a string; a is an input symbol.

Extended δ: Intuition:

12 Extended δ : Intuition Convention : … w, x, y, x are strings. a, b, c,… are single symbols. Extended δ is computed for state q and inputs a 1 a 2 …a n by following a path in the transition graph, starting at q and selecting the arcs with labels a 1 , a 2 ,…,a n in turn.

Example: Extended Delta:

13 Example : Extended Delta 0 1 A A B B A C C C C δ (B,011) = δ ( δ (B,01),1) = δ ( δ ( δ (B,0),1),1) = δ ( δ (A,1),1) = δ (B,1) = C

Delta-hat:

14 Delta-hat In book, the extended δ has a “hat” to distinguish it from δ itself. Not needed, because both agree when the string is a single symbol. δ (q, a) = δ ( δ (q, ε ), a) = δ (q, a) ˄ ˄ Extended deltas

Language of a DFA:

15 Language of a DFA Automata of all kinds define languages. If A is an automaton, L(A) is its language. For a DFA A, L(A) is the set of strings labeling paths from the start state to a final state. Formally: L(A) = the set of strings w such that δ (q 0 , w) is in F.

Example: String in a Language:

16 Example : String in a Language Start 1 0 A C B 1 0 0,1 String 101 is in the language of the DFA below. Start at A.

Example: String in a Language:

17 Example : String in a Language Start 1 0 A C B 1 0 0,1 Follow arc labeled 1. String 101 is in the language of the DFA below.

Example: String in a Language:

18 Example : String in a Language Start 1 0 A C B 1 0 0,1 Then arc labeled 0 from current state B. String 101 is in the language of the DFA below.

Example: String in a Language:

19 Example : String in a Language Start 1 0 A C B 1 0 0,1 Finally arc labeled 1 from current state A. Result is an accepting state, so 101 is in the language. String 101 is in the language of the DFA below.

Example – Concluded:

20 Example – Concluded The language of our example DFA is: {w | w is in {0,1}* and w does not have two consecutive 1’s} Read a set former as “The set of strings w… Such that… These conditions about w are true.

Proofs of Set Equivalence:

21 Proofs of Set Equivalence Often, we need to prove that two descriptions of sets are in fact the same set. Here, one set is “the language of this DFA,” and the other is “the set of strings of 0’s and 1’s with no consecutive 1’s.”

Proofs – (2):

22 Proofs – (2) In general, to prove S=T, we need to prove two parts: S ⊆ T and T ⊆ S. That is: If w is in S, then w is in T. If w is in T, then w is in S. As an example, let S = the language of our running DFA, and T = “no consecutive 1’s.”

Part 1: S ⊆ T:

23 Part 1 : S ⊆ T To prove : if w is accepted by then w has no consecutive 1’s. Proof is an induction on length of w. Important trick : Expand the inductive hypothesis to be more detailed than you need. Start 1 0 A C B 1 0 0,1

The Inductive Hypothesis:

24 The Inductive Hypothesis If δ (A, w) = A, then w has no consecutive 1’s and does not end in 1. If δ (A, w) = B, then w has no consecutive 1’s and ends in a single 1. Basis : |w| = 0; i.e., w = ε . (1) holds since ε has no 1’s at all. (2) holds vacuously , since δ (A, ε ) is not B. “length of” Important concept : If the “if” part of “if..then” is false, the statement is true.

Inductive Step:

25 Inductive Step Assume (1) and (2) are true for strings shorter than w, where |w| is at least 1. Because w is not empty, we can write w = xa, where a is the last symbol of w, and x is the string that precedes. IH is true for x. Start 1 0 A C B 1 0 0,1

Inductive Step – (2):

26 Inductive Step – (2) Need to prove (1) and (2) for w = xa. (1) for w is: If δ (A, w) = A, then w has no consecutive 1’s and does not end in 1. Since δ (A, w) = A, δ (A, x) must be A or B, and a must be 0 (look at the DFA). By the IH, x has no 11’s. Thus, w has no 11’s and does not end in 1. Start 1 0 A C B 1 0 0,1

Inductive Step – (3):

27 Inductive Step – (3) Now, prove (2) for w = xa: If δ (A, w) = B, then w has no 11’s and ends in 1. Since δ (A, w) = B, δ (A, x) must be A, and a must be 1 (look at the DFA). By the IH, x has no 11’s and does not end in 1. Thus, w has no 11’s and ends in 1. Start 1 0 A C B 1 0 0,1

Part 2: T ⊆ S:

28 Part 2 : T ⊆ S Now, we must prove: if w has no 11’s, then w is accepted by Contrapositive : If w is not accepted by then w has 11. Start 1 0 A C B 1 0 0,1 Start 1 0 A C B 1 0 0,1 Key idea : contrapositive of “if X then Y” is the equivalent statement “if not Y then not X.” X Y

Using the Contrapositive:

29 Using the Contrapositive Every w gets the DFA to exactly one state. Simple inductive proof based on: Every state has exactly one transition on 1, one transition on 0. The only way w is not accepted is if it gets to C. Start 1 0 A C B 1 0 0,1

Using the Contrapositive – (2):

30 Using the Contrapositive – (2) The only way to get to C [formally: δ (A,w) = C] is if w = x1y, x gets to B, and y is the tail of w that follows what gets to C for the first time. If δ (A,x) = B then surely x = z1 for some z. Thus, w = z11y and has 11. Start 1 0 A C B 1 0 0,1

Regular Languages:

31 Regular Languages A language L is regular if it is the language accepted by some DFA. Note : the DFA must accept only the strings in L, no others. Some languages are not regular. Intuitively, regular languages “cannot count” to arbitrarily high integers.

Example: A Nonregular Language:

32 Example : A Nonregular Language L 1 = {0 n 1 n | n ≥ 1} Note : a i is conventional for i a’s. Thus, 0 4 = 0000, e.g. Read : “The set of strings consisting of n 0’s followed by n 1’s, such that n is at least 1. Thus, L 1 = {01, 0011, 000111,…}

Another Example:

33 Another Example L 2 = {w | w in {(, )}* and w is balanced } Note : alphabet consists of the parenthesis symbols ’(’ and ’)’. Balanced parens are those that can appear in an arithmetic expression. E.g.: (), ()(), (()), (()()),…

But Many Languages are Regular:

34 But Many Languages are Regular Regular Languages can be described in many ways, e.g., regular expressions. They appear in many contexts and have many useful properties. Example : the strings that represent floating point numbers in your favorite language is a regular language.

Example: A Regular Language:

35 Example : A Regular Language L 3 = { w | w in {0,1}* and w, viewed as a binary integer is divisible by 23} The DFA: 23 states, named 0, 1,…,22. Correspond to the 23 remainders of an integer divided by 23. Start and only final state is 0.

Transitions of the DFA for L3:

36 Transitions of the DFA for L 3 If string w represents integer i, then assume δ (0, w) = i%23. Then w0 represents integer 2i, so we want δ (i%23, 0) = (2i)%23. Similarly: w1 represents 2i+1, so we want δ (i%23, 1) = (2i+1)%23. Example : δ (15,0) = 30%23 = 7; δ (11,1) = 23%23 = 0. Key idea : design a DFA by figuring out what each state needs to remember about the past.

Another Example:

37 Another Example L 4 = { w | w in {0,1}* and w, viewed as the reverse of a binary integer is divisible by 23} Example : 01110100 is in L 4 , because its reverse, 00101110 is 46 in binary. Hard to construct the DFA. But theorem says the reverse of a regular language is also regular.

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