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Drug and Therapeutics Committee:

1 Drug and Therapeutics Committee Session 12. Infection Control

Objectives:

Objectives Understand basic infection control (IC) concepts Understand the causes of nosocomial infections Understand the components of an infection control program Understand how the Infection Control Committee and DTC can decrease the incidence of nosocomial infections and antimicrobial resistance (AMR)

Outline:

Outline Key Definitions Activity 1 Introduction Epidemiology of Nosocomial Infections Control and Prevention of Nosocomial Infections Core Strategies for Reducing the Risk of Nosocomial Infections Implications for the DTC Activity 2 Summary

Key Definitions (1):

Key Definitions (1) Infection Control — The process by which health care facilities develop and implement specific policies and procedures to prevent the spread of infections among health care staff and patients Nosocomial Infection — An infection contracted by a patient or staff member while in a hospital or health care facility (and not present or incubating on admission)

Key Definitions (2):

Key Definitions (2) Disinfection — The process of microbial inactivation that eliminates virtually all recognized pathogenic microorganisms, but not necessarily all microbial forms (e.g., spores) Sterilization — The use of physical or chemical procedures to destroy all microbial life, including large numbers of highly resistant bacterial endospores. Procedures include — S team sterilization Heat sterilization Chemical sterilization

Activity 1:

Activity 1 Description of participants’ infection control and preventions programs

Introduction—Why Infection Control? (1):

Introduction—Why Infection Control? (1) Hospital acquired infections are a common problem —p revalence about 9% Hospital acquired infections contribute to AMR Overuse of antimicrobials (development) Poor infection control practices (spread)

Introduction—Why Infection Control? (2) :

Introduction—Why Infection Control? (2) Hospital-acquired infections increase the cost of health care World Bank studies have shown that two-thirds of developing countries spend more than 50% of their health care budgets on hospitals Effective IC programs are beneficial They decrease spread of nosocomial infections, morbidity, mortality, and health care costs

Introduction—Development of AMR:

Introduction—Development of AMR Poor or absent IC practices, especially in intensive care units, results in cross-transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Resistant bacteria prompts even greater antibiotic use by physicians. Perception of knowledge by physicians of poor sterilization, disinfection, or patient care practices prompts increased antibiotic use (e.g., broad spectrum and prolonged surgical prophylaxis in an effort to prevent infections).

Epidemiology of Nosocomial Infections (1):

Epidemiology of Nosocomial Infections (1) Most common sites for nosocomial infections Surgical incisions Urinary tract (i.e., catheter-related) Lower respiratory tract Bloodstream (i.e., catheter-related)

Epidemiology of Nosocomial Infections (2):

Epidemiology of Nosocomial Infections (2) Common microorganisms Aerobic gram-positive cocci ( Staphylococcus aureas [MRSA], enterococci [vancomycin-resistant]), Aerobic gram-negative bacilli ( Escherichia coli , P. aeruginosa , Enterobacter spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae )

Epidemiology of Nosocomial Infections (3):

Epidemiology of Nosocomial Infections (3) Nosocomial transmission of community acquired, multidrug-resistant organisms M. tuberculosis Salmonella spp. Shigella spp. V. cholerae

Root Causes of Nosocomial Infections (1):

Root Causes of Nosocomial Infections (1) Lack of training in basic IC Lack of an IC infrastructure and poor IC practices (procedures) Inadequate facilities and techniques for hand hygiene Lack of isolation precautions and procedures

Root Causes of Nosocomial Infections (2) :

Root Causes of Nosocomial Infections (2) Use of advanced and complex treatments without adequate training and supporting infrastructure, including — Invasive devices and procedures Complex surgical procedures Interventional obstetric practices Intravenous catheters, fluids, and medications Urinary catheters Mechanical ventilators Inadequate sterilization and disinfection practices and inadequate cleaning of hospital

Infection Control Committee (1):

Infection Control Committee (1) Membership— Doctors General physician Infectious disease specialist Surgeon Clinical microbiologist Infection control nurse Representatives from other relevant departments Laboratory Housekeeping Pharmacy and central supply Administration

Infection Control Committee (2) :

Infection Control Committee (2) Goal— To prevent the spread of infections within the health care facility Functions— Addressing food handling, laundry handling, cleaning procedures, visitation policies, and direct patient care practices Obtaining and managing critical bacteriological data and information, including surveillance data

Infection Control Committee (3):

Infection Control Committee (3) Functions (cont) Developing and recommending policies and procedures pertaining to infection control Recognizing and investigating outbreaks of infections in the hospital and community Intervening directly to prevent infections Educating and training health care workers, patients, and nonmedical caregivers

Core Strategies to Reduce Nosocomial Infections—Hand Hygiene:

Core Strategies to Reduce Nosocomial Infections—Hand Hygiene To ensure appropriate hand washing techniques — Provide sinks, clean water, and soap at convenient locations Where sinks, clean water, and hand washing supplies are unavailable, use alcohol-based products which are inexpensive, produced locally, convenient, and effective for hand hygiene. Monitor compliance Use gloves when necessary

Slide 19:

Source: Modified from Larson, E. 1988. Guideline for Use of Topical Antimicrobial Agents. American Journal of Infection Control 16:253.

Isolation and Standard Precautions:

Isolation and Standard Precautions Whenever possible, avoid crowding wards. Implement specific policies and procedures for patients with communicable diseases: Private rooms and wards for patients with specific diseases Visitation policies Hand washing and use of gloves Gowns, when appropriate Masks, eye protection, gowns Precautions with sharp instruments and needles

Ensuring a Clean Environment:

Ensuring a Clean Environment Establish policies and procedures to prevent food and water contamination Establish a regular schedule of hospital cleaning with appropriate disinfectants in, for example, wards, operating theaters, and laundry Dispose of medical waste safely Needles and syringes should be incinerated Other infected waste can be incinerated or autoclaved for landfill disposal Bag and isolate soiled linen from normal hospital traffic

Cleaning, Disinfection, and Sterilization of Instruments and Supplies:

Cleaning, Disinfection, and Sterilization of Instruments and Supplies Written policies and procedures are needed All objects to be disinfected or sterilized should first be thoroughly cleaned Use stream sterilization whenever possible Quality control in reprocessing is essential Monitor and record sterilization parameters (i.e., time, temperature, pressure) Biological indicators should be used to ensure sterilization Chemical indicators are necessary for chemical sterilization Sterilized items must be stored in enclosed clean areas Items or devices that are manufactured for single use should not be reprocessed ( e.g., disposable syringes and needles)

Sterile Invasive Procedures and Intravenous Medications:

Sterile Invasive Procedures and Intravenous Medications Intravascular devices Use only when necessary. Silicon elastomer or polyurethane catheters have lower infection risk than polyvinyl catheters Procure IV solutions and IV devices from quality suppliers when assured GMP. Prepare and administer IV medicines and fluids in a sterile manner, in a designated uncontaminated area, using specially trained staff. Urinary catheters Avoid in-dwelling urinary catheters whenever possible. Use closed drainage systems.

Respiratory Therapy :

Respiratory Therapy Mechanical ventilation and respiratory equipment Use only when absolutely necessary. Use suction catheters only once (or reprocess them appropriately). Ensure that all equipment has ethylene oxide sterilization or high-level disinfection before use. Wean patient early from ventilators. Ensure proper handling of inhalation medications and supplies.

Surgery and Surgical Site Care :

Surgery and Surgical Site Care Implement comprehensive policies and procedures. Minimize preoperative stays in the hospital. If necessary to shave the planned operative site, use clippers (not razors) and shave immediately before the procedure. Use antibiotic prophylaxis only when indicated and according to established protocols. Provide sterile instruments in individually wrapped sterile packages. Use an effective antiseptic, such as iodine, to prepare the incision site. Include perioperative scrub with antiseptic scrub for hand and forearm antisepsis for surgical teams.

Employee Health and Training Program:

Employee Health and Training Program Treat work-related illnesses Provide vaccinations to decrease infections Routine vaccinations ( e.g., diphtheria, tetanus, polio, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, hepatitis A and B, BCG) Vaccinations during epidemics (e.g., meningitis, typhoid, influenza) Train health workers in — Appropriate sterile techniques Infection control procedures Use of barrier precautions (e.g., gloves) for certain procedures

Food and Water Precautions:

Food and Water Precautions Contamination of food and water supply frequently occurs in hospitals. Inadequate cooking may lead to overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria. Food handlers may contract an infectious disease. Policies and procedures to prevent food and water contamination are necessary.

Antimicrobial Use and Monitoring (DTC and Infection Control Committee Collaboration):

Antimicrobial Use and Monitoring (DTC and Infection Control Committee Collaboration) Establish protocols recommending use of the most cost-effective agents when treatment is indicated Therapeutic guidelines Prophylactic guidelines Guidelines for surgical prophylaxis Measure antimicrobial use to identify misuse Aggregate methods Indicator studies in primary health care Drug use evaluations (DUEs) in hospitals Implement interventions to improve antimicrobials use

Case Study—Cesarean Section :

Case Study— Cesarean Section The risk of endometritis after cesarean section exceeds 30%. Antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the incidence by two-thirds.

Inappropriate Timing of Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Cesarean Section:

Inappropriate Timing of Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Cesarean Section Patients Receiving Prophylaxis Patients Receiving Prophylaxis £ 1 Hour after Delivery Hospital A 70% 31% Hospital B 32% 70%

Effect of Appropriate Perioperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis on Surgical Site Infections after Cesarean Section :

Effect of Appropriate Perioperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis on Surgical Site Infections after Cesarean Section ( Source: Goldman, 2001, unpublished) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Month % 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 # surgical site infections per 100 cesarean sections Period I Period II Period III

Infection Control Priority Matrix:

Infection Control Priority Matrix Factor Importance Within the Capacity of Hospital Personnel to Improve Time Frame for Improvement Antibiotic prophylaxis 4 4 Short Skin preparation 3 4 Short Surgical technique 4 4 Medium Prenatal factors 3 1 Long Peripartum events 4 2 Medium

Implications for the DTC:

Implications for the DTC Support IC activities Provide training to Infection Control Committee members on appropriate antimicrobial use Select appropriate antimicrobials, disinfectants, and antiseptics Develop and implement protocols for antimicrobial use Therapeutic Prophylactic Monitor IV and injection preparation and administration, Evaluate/review antimicrobial use (DUE) Promote and advocate for the Infection Control Assessment Tool (ICAT) (from RPM Plus/MSH) to improve IC practices

Infection Control Resources:

Infection Control Resources Infection control manuals, protocols, and training programs (See Participants’ Guide, annex 1) CDC website —p rotocols EngenderHealth training program —w eb-based training for basic infection programs ICAT —tool that can be used in low-resource countries to improve infection control practices (can be obtained from RPM Plus/MSH)

Infection Control Assessment Tool:

Infection Control Assessment Tool The ICAT and quality improvement program provide a standardized approach. Combining an infection control self-assessment tool (ICAT) and rapid cycle quality improvement (RCQI) (or rapid team problem solving) methods improves hospital infection control practices. RCQI is a quality improvement approach in which a multidisciplinary team collaborates on improving an identified problem or situation.

Activity 2:

Activity 2 Review the current session and make recommendations for your hospital or primary care clinic for starting an Infection Control Committee, improving the current committee, or making an Infection Control Subcommittee of the DTC.

Summary (1):

Summary (1) IC procedures are vital to preventing nosocomial infections and for controlling hospital costs. Simple, inexpensive strategies can prevent many infections. DTC can support many IC activities. Hand washing and use of appropriate antiseptics and disinfectants Monitoring IV and injection preparation and administration DTC should actively promote better use of antimicrobials. Guidelines for treatment and surgical prophylaxis Selection of appropriate antimicrobials for the formulary Antimicrobial use reviews

Summary (2):

Summary (2) Infection Control Committees or programs, when functioning effectively, will  Reduce the spread of infectious diseases Decrease morbidity and mortality due to nosocomial infections Maintain employee health and morale Decrease the incidence of AMR Decrease health care costs

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