Communication skills

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Communication Skills:

Communication Skills

Objectives:

Objectives Communication process Barriers to communication Interpersonal communication Negotiation Organizational communication Barriers to organizational communication Electronic communication Conflict Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Communication:

Communication Creating joint meanings and shared understanding Coordinating (the coordination of) behavior The exchange of information Information as a common basis of human relationships, understanding, and feeling Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Emotional Intelligence Again:

Emotional Intelligence Again In “Leading by Feel” several leaders discuss emotional intelligence and its impact in organizations What common themes did you see in these short pieces? How does paying attention to emotional intelligence help in communication? Is it only the leader’s emotional intelligence that matters? Why do you think communication is so difficult in organizations? Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

The Communication Process:

The Communication Process Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Barriers to Effective Communication:

Barriers to Effective Communication Ambiguous, Muddled Messages Semantics Physical Barriers Loss of Transmission Failing to Communicate Competition Barriers Cultural, Linguistic, and Diversity Barriers Not Listening Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Nonverbal Communication:

Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Communication The nonspoken aspects of communication, such as a person’s manner of speaking, facial expressions, or body posture, that express meaning to others. Nonverbal communication can complicate the task of communicating internationally. The nonverbal part of communicating is more important in some societies than in others. In many societies, the context (or setting) in which a message is delivered, with its nonverbal cues, has far more meaning than the words of the message itself. Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Psychological Barriers:

Psychological Barriers Perception Selectivity/exposure filtering out of unpleasant things and focusing on or recalling things not heard. Retention filtering of things that feel good, and the tendency to forget those things that are painful. Experiential Barriers The difficulty in understanding things not personally experienced. Emotions Emotions influence both what is said and what is heard. Defensiveness Adjustments people make to avoid acknowledging personal inadequacies that might reduce their self-esteem. Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Interpersonal Communications:

Interpersonal Communications Interpersonal communication Communication that occurs between two individuals. Methods for Improving Interpersonal Communications Pay attention Make yourself clear Be an active listener Don’t attack the person’s defenses Get feedback Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Checklist 12.1 Active Listening:

Checklist 12.1 Active Listening Listen for total meaning. Reflect feelings. Note all cues. Give the person your full attention. Show that you are listening with an open mind. Encourage the speaker to give complete information. Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Negotiation:

Negotiation Negotiation defined A process in which two or more parties who have different preference must make a joint decision and come to an agreement Distributive bargaining Negotiation under zero-sum conditions, in which the gains by one party involve losses by the other party Integrative bargaining Negotiation in which there is at least one settlement that involves no loss to either party Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Determining the Bargaining Zone:

Determining the Bargaining Zone Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected] Prentice Hall, 2002

How to Improve Your Negotiating Skills:

How to Improve Your Negotiating Skills Mistakes to avoid when negotiating: Neglecting the other side’s problems. Letting price overwhelm other interests. Searching too hard for common ground. Failing to consider best alternative to a negotiated agreement. Negotiating Tactics (Using Leverage) Necessity Desire Competition Time Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Checklist 12.2 How to be More Persuasive:

Checklist 12.2 How to be More Persuasive Establish your credibility. Frame for common ground. Connect emotionally. Provide evidence. Use peer power whenever it’s available. Have the person make the commitment active, public, and voluntary. Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Organizational Communication:

Organizational Communication Organizational Communication Communication that occurs among several individuals or groups. Downward communications go from superior to subordinate. Lateral (horizontal) communications move between departments or between people in the same department. Upward communications move from subordinates to superiors. Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

The Four Dimensions:

The Four Dimensions Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Another View:

Another View The work network With whom do you exchange information as part of your daily work routines? The social network With whom do you “check in”, inside and outside the organization to find out what is going on? The innovation network With whom do you collaborate or kick around new ideas? The expert knowledge network To whom do you turn for expertise or advice? The career guidance or strategic network Whom do you go to for advice about the future? The learning network Whom do you work with to improve existing processes or methods? Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Energy:

Energy Do you weave relationship development into work and day-to-day interactions? Do you do what you say you are going to do? Do you address tough issues with integrity? Do you look for possibilities or just identify constraints? When you disagree with someone, do you focus attention on the issue at hand rather than the individual? Are you cognitively and physically engaged in meetings and conversations? Are you flexible in your thinking or do you force others to come to your way of thinking? Do you use your own expertise appropriately? Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Special Barriers to Organizational Communication:

Special Barriers to Organizational Communication Interpersonal Barriers Authority Task Political Identity Organizational Culture Organization Structures Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Getting Upward Feedback:

Getting Upward Feedback Request feedback from people whom you trust and who will be honest with you. If the feedback is too general, ask for examples of specific, recent behavior. Don’t be defensive, make excuses, or blame others when you hear criticism. Do not overreact or underreact to feedback. Once the feedback is complete, summarize what the speaker said to make sure that you understand. Explain what you are going to do in response to the feedback, do it, evaluate the consequences on performance, and then let the feedback-giver know of the outcome. Thank the person for his or her concern and advice. Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Fostering Upward Organizational Communication:

Fostering Upward Organizational Communication Social gatherings Union publications Regular meetings Performance appraisal meetings Grievances Attitude surveys A suggestion system An open door policy Indirect measures E-Mail Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Improving Downward Communication:

Improving Downward Communication Open-Book Management A management style in which a company opens its books to the employees, sharing financial data, explaining numbers, and rewarding workers for improvement. Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Improving Horizontal Communication:

Improving Horizontal Communication Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected] Appoint Liaison Personnel Organize Committees and Task Forces Use Independent Integrators Horizontal Communications

Improving Informal Communications:

Improving Informal Communications Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected] Provide Physical Support Emphasize Informality Maintain Communication Intensity Informal Communications

Hierarchy of Media Richness and Application for Managerial Applications:

Hierarchy of Media Richness and Application for Managerial Applications Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Managing Conflict:

Managing Conflict Conflict defined Perceived differences resulting in interference or opposition Functional conflict Conflict over what best supports an organization’s goals Dysfunctional conflict Conflict that prevents an organization from achieving its goals Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Three Views of Conflict:

Three Views of Conflict Traditional view Assumed that conflict was bad and would always have a negative impact on an organization Human relations view Argued that conflict was a natural and inevitable occurrence in all organizations; rationalized the existence of conflict and advocated its acceptance Interactionist view Encourages mangers to maintain ongoing minimum level of conflict sufficient to keep organizational units viable, self-critical, and creative Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected] Prentice Hall, 2002

Conflict & Organizational Performance:

Conflict & Organizational Performance Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Sources of Conflict:

Sources of Conflict Communication differences Arising from semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and noise in the communication channels Structural differences Horizontal and vertical differentiation creates problems of integration leading to disagreements over goals, decision alternatives, performance criteria, and resource allocations in organizations Personal differences Individual idiosyncrasies and personal value systems create conflicts Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Dimensions of Conflict:

Dimensions of Conflict Cooperativeness The degree to which an individual will attempt to rectify a conflict by satisfying the other person’s concerns Assertiveness The degree to which an individual will attempt to rectify the conflict to satisfy his or her own concerns Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

Conflict Model:

Conflict Model Imprint Training Center 9- Lal Niwas, Sardarpura, Udaipur- 313001 Email: [email protected]

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