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What is a report? : 

What is a report? A formal statement of the results of an investigation, or of any matter on which definite information is required, made by some person or body instructed or required to do so.’ Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved April 4, 2006, from http://www.oed

Steps before writing : 

Steps before writing 1-picking up a topic . 2-listing resources (books ,magazines and articles) 3-taking notes

Writing a Draft for the Report : 

Writing a Draft for the Report 1-Introduction 2-Body 3-Conclusion

INTRODUCTION : 

INTRODUCTION This describes the background to the report, the reasons for doing the work and the aims of the work. It should set up the rest of the report in such a way as to leave the reader in no doubt as to why they are reading the report and what they are going to get out of it.

Slide 5: 

With the rise in global warming and increasing pollution levels, it is becoming essential to find a viable alternative to the internal combustion engine petrol powered car. The aim of this project was to create two designs for a fuel cell powered car, the main criteria being environmental friendliness in terms of both emissions and materials. This report presents the designs for two such cars, each of which includes the following components: engine, fuel, wheels, accessories, safety features and materials. Car A is aimed at the upper end of the market, while Car B is a mid-range vehicle suitable for family use. A description of the design and an analysis of operational efficiency for each car are followed by a comparison of the two designs. Finally, the most cost efficient design is recommended. INTRODUCTION SAMPLE 1

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Over the past three decades there has been a growing belief in all sectors of employment and in government that the experie of stress at work has undesirableconsequences for the health and safety of individuals and for the health of their organisations.This belief has been reflected both in public and media interest and in increasing concern voiced by the trades unions, and professional and scientific bodies. There are three basic questions that require answering: 1. What is the nature of occupational stress? 2. Does work stress affect health and well-being and, if so, how? 3. What are the implications of existing research for the management of workrelated stress? This Report addresses these questions after having briefly examined the difficulties involved in placing work stress in the context of other life stressors. INTRODUCTION SAMPLE 2

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Body of the report This is main part of the report, where you present your work. The introduction and conclusions act as a frame for the body only: therefore all the details of your work (including a summarised version of material in the appendices) must be included here in the appropriate section. You will need to put some thought into the ordering of the sections; the presentation of information should flow logically so that the reader can follow the development of your project. It is also essential that you choose concise but informative headings and subheadings so that the reader knows exactly what type of information to expect in each section. The body of the report: -presents the information from your research, both real world and theoretical, or your design -organizes information logically under appropriate headings -conveys information in the most effective way for communication: uses figures and tables can use bulleted or numbered lists can use formatting to break up large slabs of text

BODY OF THE REPORT : 

Elephants Baby elephants The Trunk Food Habitat Protecting elephants BODY OF THE REPORT

Elephants : 

Elephants The first paragraph is general. It tells us about the topic.

Baby Elephants : 

Baby Elephants A baby elephant is called a calf. A newborn elephant weighs about 110kg. It is covered in hair. Baby elephants stay in the group until they are about ten years old. This paragraph gives details about one aspect.

The Trunk : 

The Trunk An elephant’s trunk is really a nose. They use their trunk to drink. They breathe through the trunk. They also use the trunk to break branches and to pick up food. This paragraph gives details about one aspect.

Food : 

Food Adult elephants eat in the morning and evening. They eat lots of leaves and grass. They use their trunk to suck up water and then squirt it in their mouth. This paragraph gives details about one aspect.

Habitat : 

Habitat African elephants live in grasslands and forests. Indian elephants live in jungles. Their habitats are being destroyed. This paragraph gives details about one aspect.

Protecting Elephants : 

Protecting Elephants Elephants are beautiful animals. People are trying to save their habitat and protect them. Without help all the world’s elephants will die. This is the concluding paragraph.

Conclusions : 

Conclusions The conclusions summaries the report and reiterate the main findings. They should relate back to the aims of the report as stated in the introduction.

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Conclusions The conclusions section provides an effective ending to your report. The content should relate directly to the aims of the project as stated in the introduction, and sum up the essential features of your work. This section: states whether you have achieved your aims gives a brief summary of the key findings or information in your report highlights the major outcomes of your investigation and their significance. The conclusions should relate to the aims of the work: The conclusions section provides an effective ending to your report. The content should relate directly to the aims of the project as stated in the introduction, and sum up the essential features of your work. This section: states whether you have achieved your aims gives a brief summary of the key findings or information in your report highlights the major outcomes of your investigation and their significance. The conclusions should relate to the aims of the work: Example 1: Aim The aim of this project is to design a mobile phone tower. Conclusions Sample 1 In this report, a design for a mobile phone tower has been presented. The key features of the tower are... It was found that...

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Conclusion Sample 2 Two alternative designs for an emission-free fuel cell powered car have been presented: Car A, a luxury sedan which runs on hydrogen, and Car B, a medium-sized family hatch which uses hydrogen and oxygen. Each car features recyclable materials and conforms to Australian design standards in terms of performance and safety features. However, Car B is recommended as it was found to be more economical in terms of both manufacturing and running costs.

After writing the Second Draft : 

After writing the Second Draft Report layout: - Title page: title of report, name of the person who wrote it, date, reference no. (if applicable), circulation list. - Table of contents: with section and page numbers

References or Bibliography : 

References or Bibliography It is essential that any research material used in the report is cited in the body of the text and the reference included in the reference section. Also material included in the reference section must be cited in the text. See the attached handout on citation methods for acceptable citation techniques.

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References: a complete list of material directly referred to in the main text. After a quote in the main body of the text you may put (Jones, 1994:78) = author of book used, date of publication, page number. In your references at the back, the entry for this would be: Jones, M A (1994): An introduction to SSADM, McGraw Hill, Maidenhead.

Slide 21: 

Reference Citations in Text In APA style, in-text citations are placed within sentences and paragraphs so that it is clear what information is being quoted or paraphrased and whose information is being cited. Examples: Works by a Single Author The last name of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point. from theory on bounded rationality (Simon, 1945) If the name of the author or the date appear as part of the narrative cite only missing information in parentheses. Simon (1945) posited that In 1945 Simon posited that

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Works by Multiple Authors When a work has two authors, always cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text. In parenthetical material join the names with an ampersand (&). as has been shown (Leiter & Maslach, 1998) In the narrative text, join the names with the word "and." as Leiter and Maslach (1998) demonstrated When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. Kahneman, Knetsch, & Thaler (1991) found In all subsequent citations per paragraph, include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." (Latin for "and others") and the year of publication. Kahneman et al. (1991) found

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Specific Parts of a Source To cite a specific part of a source (always necessary for quotations), include the page, chapter, etc. (with appropriate abbreviations) in the in-text citation. (Stigter & Das, 1981, p. 96) De Waal (1996) overstated the case when he asserted that "we seem to be reaching ... from the hands of philosophers" (p. 218). If page numbers are not included in electronic sources (such as web-based journals), provide the paragraph number preceded by the paragraph symbol or the heading and following paragraph. (Mönnich & Spiering, 2008 ¶ 9)

Slide 24: 

Reference List References cited in the text of a research paper must appear in a Reference List or bibliography. This list provides the information necessary to identify and retrieve each source. Order: Entries should be arranged in alphabetical order by authors' last names. Sources without authors are arranged alphabetically by title within the same list. Authors: Write out the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work. Use an ampersand (&) instead of the word "and" when listing multiple authors of a single work. e.g. Smith, J. D., & Jones, M. Titles: Capitalize only the first word of a title or subtitle, and any proper names that are part of a title. Pagination: Use the abbreviation p. or pp. to designate page numbers of articles from periodicals that do not use volume numbers, especially newspapers. These abbreviations are also used to designate pages in encyclopedia articles and chapters from edited books. Indentation*: The first line of the entry is flush with the left margin, and all subsequent lines are indented (5 to 7 spaces) to form a "hanging indent". Underlining vs. Italics*: It is appropriate to use italics instead of underlining for titles of books and journals.

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Examples: Articles in Journals, Magazines, and Newspapers References to periodical articles must include the following elements: author(s), date of publication, article title, journal title, volume number, issue number (if applicable), and page numbers. Journal Article, one author, accessed online Ku, G. (2008). Learning to de-escalate: The effects of regret in escalation of commitment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105(2), 221- 232. doi:10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.08.002   Journal Article, two authors, accessed online Sanchez, D., & King-Toler, E. (2007). Addressing disparities consultation and outreach strategies for university settings. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 59(4), 286-295. doi:10.1037/1065- 9293.59.4.286

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Journal Article, more than two authors, accessed online Van Vugt, M., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. B. (2008). Leadership, followership, and evolution: Some lessons from the past. American Psychologist, 63 (3), 182-196. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.63.3.182   Article from an Internet-only journal Hirtle, P. B. (2008, July-August). Copyright renewal, copyright restoration, and the difficulty of determining copyright status. D-Lib Magazine, 14 (7/8). doi:10.1045/july2008-hirtle

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Newspaper article, no author, in print As prices surge, Thailand pitches OPEC-style rice cartel. (2008, May 5). The Wall Street Journal, p. A9.   Newspaper article, multiple authors, discontinuous pages, in print Delaney, K. J., Karnitschnig, M., & Guth, R. A. (2008, May 5). Microsoft ends pursuit of Yahoo, reassesses its online options. The Wall Street Journal, pp. A1, A12.

Slide 28: 

Books References to an entire book must include the following elements: author(s) or editor(s), date of publication, title, place of publication, and the name of the publisher. No Author or Editor, in print Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (11th ed.). (2003). Springfield, MA: Merriam- Webster.   One Author, in print Kidder, T. (1981). The soul of a new machine. Boston: Little, Brown & Company.

Slide 29: 

Corporate Author, Author as Publisher, accessed online Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2000). Tasmanian year book 2000 (no. 1301.6). Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Author. Retreived from http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/CA2568710006989... $File/13016_2000.pdf

Slide 30: 

Dissertations References for dissertations should include the following elements: author, date of publication, title, and institution (if you accessed the manuscript copy from the university collections). If there is a UMI number or a database accession number, include it at the end of the citation.   Dissertation, accessed online Young, R. F. (2007). Crossing boundaries in urban ecology: Pathways to sustainable cities. Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses. (AT 3276815

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Essays or Chapters in Edited Books References to an essay or chapter in an edited book must include the following elements: essay or chapter authors, date of publication, essay or chapter title, book editor(s), book title, essay or chapter page numbers, place of publication, and the name of the publisher. One Author Labajo, J. (2003). Body and voice: The construction of gender in flamenco. In T. Magrini (Ed.), Music and gender: perspectives from the Mediterranean (pp. 67-86). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Slide 32: 

Do not forget

Table of Contents : 

Table of Contents 1-Introduction 2-Body of the Report 3-Conclusion 4-Refrences

Paragraph Level : 

Paragraph Level Does the paragraph contain a topic sentence that accurately conveys the paragraph’s central idea? Does the paragraph contain enough information to support the idea expressed in the topic sentence? Does the paragraph contain too much information so that it will overwhelm the reader? Do the ideas presented in the sentences following the topic sentence flow logically (i.e., are they in the correct order)?

Language : 

Language Be clear, concise and correct. Use: Familiar words technical terms should be defined within the text Active verbs for majority of the report Avoid Ambiguity Loaded words Clichés e.g. ‘a can of worms’ Jargon

Language cont. : 

Language cont. Avoid: Superfluous words and phrases e.g. in order to = to, in the event that = if Tautology - saying the same thing twice with different words in the same sentence e.g. the brevity of the notice given was far too short Split infinitives e.g. to boldly go Double negatives; not never = sometimes

Language cont. : 

Language cont. Avoid Joining two sentences which are not logically related Sentences ending with prepositions e.g. to put up with Long sentences Professional report may have to be written in the third person

Spelling and punctuation : 

Spelling and punctuation Spelling Word processed material should always use the spell checker Word uses the American spelling e.g. formalize not formalise Punctuation See handout#

For more information visit the following websites : 

For more information visit the following websites http://www.associatedcontent.com http://www.cse.iitk.ac.in/users/braman/students/good-report.htm http://www.scribd.com/doc/8222765/Lets-Write-a-Report http://www.monash.edu.au/lls/llonline/writing/engineering/technical-report/4.1.xml http://www.library.cornell.edu/resrch/citmanage/apa

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