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Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard Brief Biography. Born November 17, 1886. Mount Hermon Prep School. Enrolled at Harvard. Began Working for AT&T. Other Affiliations.

Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard Who and What Influenced Barnard. Barnard was greatly influenced by Walter Gifford. Harvard President A. Lawrence Lowell. Barnard’s Environment. Henderson, Donham, Mayo & Others.

Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard Contributions of Barnard. Theory of Organization. Concept of Authority.

Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard “Authority is the character of a communication in a formal organization by virtue of which it is accepted by a contributor to or ‘member’ of the organization as governing the action he contributes; that is as governing or determining what he does or is not to do so far as the organization is concerned.”

Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard Human Relations School of Management Thinking. Barnard’s Book the Functions of the Executive. Organization Defined. “a system of consciously coordinated activities of two or more persons.” He also said, “that an organization is held together by common purposes and goals that its members share.”

Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard Barnard’s Theory of Cooperation. Concerning the Status of Individuals and the Properties of Persons. Treatment of Individuals and Persons. The Behavior of Individuals. Effectiveness and Efficiency in Personal Behavior. Physical and Biological Limitations in Cooperative Systems.

Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard Barnard asks Five Questions Regarding Cooperation and Limitations. Why or when is cooperation effective? What are the objects of cooperative processes? What are the limitations of cooperation? What are the causes of instability in cooperative Systems? What effect has cooperation upon ends sought?

Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard Cooperative System (Physical, Biological, Personal, & Social Components. Variation to A Cooperative System. Those that relate to aspects of the physical environment. Those that relate to aspects of the social environment. Those that relate to individuals. Other variables.

Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard Barnard’s central hypothesis for his book defining the concept of cooperative systems is that the organization is a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more persons.

Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard An organization comes into being when: There are persons able to communicate with each other. There are persons willing to contribute action. There are persons willing to accomplish a common purpose.

Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard The elements of the organization are Therefore: Communication. Willingness to Serve. A Common Purpose.

Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard The Executive Functions. Values of Leaders. Purpose Defined by Leaders. Cooperation Requires Communication. The Executive Must Maintain Organization.

Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard The essential executive functions are: To Provide the System of Communication. Promote the Securing of Essential Efforts. Formulate and Design the Purpose.

Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard The Nature of Executive Responsibility should include the following. Imply a Complex Morality. Require a High Capacity of Responsibility. Understand Conditions. Generate Technical Ability with Moral Factors. The Ability to Create Morals for Others.

Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard Conclusions from Barnard’s Work. Physical & Biological Factors are Basic in Cooperation. All Complex Organizations Grow from Unit Organizations. Society’s Major Structure is Complex Formal Organizations. The Strategic Factor in Cooperation is Leadership.

Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard Criticism of Barnard’s Work. Abstractness of Presentation. Paucity & Pedestrian Quality of Example. The Difficulty of Style. Style of Amateur Scholar. Omissions.

Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard Criticism of Barnard’s Work. Speaks Little of Top Management. Lacks Insight on Personal Involvement. No Acknowledgment of Development of Individuals. His Analysis of Leadership is Abstract.

Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard Barnard said, “Considering the fact that I suppose it to be in some respects new, it is deficient in clarity and illustrations.” “Moreover, this treatment is incomplete and unfinished in many respects; many years and many men would be required to complete or finish such a study.”

Chester I. Barnard:

Chester I. Barnard Questions for Discussion

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