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A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e Chapter 12 Maintaining Windows 2000/XP

Objectives : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 2 Objectives Learn how to install and manage hardware and applications using Windows 2000/XP Learn how to protect and maintain Windows 2000/XP system files Learn about the Windows 2000/XP registry Learn how to optimize the Windows 2000/XP environment for best performance

Introduction : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 3 Introduction Topics to cover: Installing and supporting hardware Installing and supporting applications Protecting and maintaining Windows system files Optimizing the OS Windows registry

Supporting Hardware and Applications : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 4 Supporting Hardware and Applications Hard drives are installed in a unique way Things to learn: Special tools and methods used to install hard drives How to troubleshoot problems with a hardware device Installing applications, including legacy applications Monitoring and managing hardware and applications

Installing Hardware and Applications : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 5 Installing Hardware and Applications Administrator privileges needed for most installations Any user can install device under certain conditions: Device drivers can be installed without user input All files necessary for complete installation are present The drivers have been digitally signed There are no errors during installation Recommendation: use drivers written for the OS Drivers are usually on CDs bundled with the device Manufacturer’s Web site is a source of drivers Other sites have drivers; e.g., www.driverzone.com

Installing Hardware and Applications (continued) : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 6 Installing Hardware and Applications (continued) General directions for installing a hardware device Download driver files to your hard drive (if necessary) Determine if driver should be installed before device If driver needs to be installed first, run setup program Steps to install a hardware device using Windows XP If device installed first, plug in device and turn on PC After Wizard appears, pick automatic driver installation Instruct Wizard to locate and install drivers Check for errors and then test the device

Slide 7: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 7 Figure 12-5 The Found New Hardware Wizard asks for directions to locate driver files

Installing Hardware and Applications (continued) : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 8 Installing Hardware and Applications (continued) XP may automatically install a Microsoft driver Prevent this action by running setup program After the fact, use Device Manager to update driver Steps to install a device using Windows 2000 Run the setup CD or physically install the device The Found New Hardware Wizard dialog appears Choose whether to search for a device or display a list If necessary, specify a search location Allow Windows 2000 to complete the installation

Slide 9: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 9 Figure 12-10 Point to the location of driver files for a new device

Preparing a Hard Drive for First Use : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 10 Preparing a Hard Drive for First Use OS tools to partition and format a hard drive: During installation: use Windows setup program Programs to use after installation: Disk Management, Windows Explorer, Diskpart, Format Third-party software can be used; e.g., PartitionMagic Reasons to partition and format a hard drive: Preparation for first time use (required) To overwrite an existing partition that is error-prone Backup a drive that is infected with a virus Wipe a hard drive clean and install a new OS

Preparing a Hard Drive for First Use (continued) : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 11 Preparing a Hard Drive for First Use (continued) Disk Management graphical user interface: Used to create partitions and format logical drives Can create volumes on dynamic disks Can also convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk Two ways to access the Disk Management utility Control Panel Administrative ToolsComputer ManagementDisk Management Enter Diskmgmt.msc in Run dialog box

Slide 12: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 12 Figure 12-14 This one hard drive has three partitions

Preparing a Hard Drive for First Use (continued) : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 13 Preparing a Hard Drive for First Use (continued) Partitioning and formatting with Disk Management After opening utility, right-click a new drive Select New Partition to launch New Partition Wizard Choose Primary partition and then click Next Allocate space for the partition Choose drive letter, file system, and volume name Test the new drive by creating and using a folder

Slide 14: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 14 Figure 12-16 The first partition on a hard drive should be the primary partition

Slide 15: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 15 Figure 12-17 One partition created and formatted on the new hard drive

Solving Hardware Problems Using Windows 2000/XP : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 16 Solving Hardware Problems Using Windows 2000/XP Preparatory steps Question the user Identify recent changes to the system Make an initial determination of the problem Document symptoms, actions taken, and outcome Some corrective measures Try a simple reboot Uninstall the device, reboot and reinstall drivers Update device drivers Return to an earlier restore point

Slide 17: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 17 Figure 12-18 Use Device Manager to uninstall a device

Solving Hardware Problems Using Windows 2000/XP (continued) : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 18 Solving Hardware Problems Using Windows 2000/XP (continued) Updating drivers Locate the drivers or download them from the Web Right-click device in Device Manager, select Properties Select Driver tab and click Update Driver Respond to queries of Hardware Update Wizard Roll Back Driver Feature that enables you to revert to a previous driver Accessed in the Properties window for the device If driver files are not present, copy them to the PC

Slide 19: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 19 Figure 12-20 Use Device Manager to update drivers for a device

Solving Hardware Problems Using Windows 2000/XP (continued) : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 20 Solving Hardware Problems Using Windows 2000/XP (continued) Verify that drivers are certified by Microsoft Use the File Signature Verification tool (Sigverif.exe) Use the Driver Query tool (Driverquery/si > myfile.txt) Use the Device Manager (Driver Details) How to control OS response to an unsigned driver Open the System Properties window Click the Hardware tab to open Driver Signing Options Select how Windows should handle driver installation

Slide 21: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 21 Figure 12-22 Tell Windows how you want it to handle installing an unsigned driver

Installing and Supporting Applications : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 22 Installing and Supporting Applications Two methods: Use the Add or Remove Program applet Run the application’s setup program How to troubleshoot malfunctioning legacy software Check the Microsoft Web site for updates Check the Manufacturer’s Web site for updates/advice Consider upgrading the software to a later version Use the Windows XP Compatibility Mode utility Compatibility Mode utility emulates native OS of program Can be set in Properties dialog box of shortcut menu

Slide 23: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 23 Figure 12-25 Setting Windows XP to run a legacy program in compatibility mode

Installing and Supporting Applications (continued) : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 24 Installing and Supporting Applications (continued) How to solve problems with applications Use the Error Reporting service or Dr. Watson Try a reboot Scan for viruses Run Windows Update Free up system resources Uninstall and reinstall the application Run or install application under another user account Create a new data file Try restoring default settings

Tools Useful to Manage Hardware and Applications : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 25 Tools Useful to Manage Hardware and Applications Console: window to one or more administrative tools Snap-in: individual tool placed in a console Computer Management Console consolidating several administrative tools Accessed from Administrative Tools in Control Panel Two snap-ins: Disk Management and Device Manager Microsoft Management Console (MMC) Used to build customized console windows File saved with .msc extension; e.g. Compmgmt.msc Administrator privileges are required to use functions

Slide 26: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 26 Figure 12-31 Windows 2000/XP Computer Management combines several administrative tools into a single easy-to-access window

Slide 27: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 27 Figure 12-34 The Add/Remove Snap-in window

Tools Useful to Manage Hardware and Applications (continued) : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 28 Tools Useful to Manage Hardware and Applications (continued) Event Viewer (Eventvwr.msc) Computer Management console snap-in Displays logs of significant events; e.g., network failure Three standard logs: application, security, and system Event types (non-security): Information, Warning, Error Events can be filtered via Properties dialog box of log Log file size can also be limited via Properties Windows 2000/XP support tools Located in the \Support\Tools folder on the setup CD Dependency Walker: list files used by an application

Slide 29: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 29 Figure 12-36 Use Event Viewer to see information about events with applications, security, and the system

Slide 30: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 30 Figure 12-40 Dependency Walker shows files the Notepad.exe program needs to run

Protecting and Maintaining Windows System Files : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 31 Protecting and Maintaining Windows System Files Tools for protecting and backing up system files: Windows File Protection System Restore (Windows XP only) Backing up the system state Automated System Recovery (Windows XP only) System state data: critical files for loading an OS Types of system state data: All files necessary to boot the OS The Windows 2000/XP registry All system files in the %SystemRoot% folder

Windows File Protection : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 32 Windows File Protection Protects files from being changed or deleted Files protected: .sys, .dll, .ttf, .fon, .ocs, or .exe How Windows Files Protection (WFP) works Keeps good system files in C:\..\system32\dllcache System files are tested against copy in dllcache folder Copy in dllcache folder replaces a questionable file WFP may request that you insert the setup CD System File Checker (SFC): tool used by WFP Checks system files after unattended installation Verifies that the correct system files are being used

Slide 33: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 33 Figure 12-42 Windows File Protection stores good copies of system files in the C:\Windows\system32\dllcache folder

Windows XP System Restore : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 34 Windows XP System Restore Restores system to a prior state (restore point) Restore point: snapshot of the system Impact of restore process on the system Does not affect the data on the hard drive Can affect software, hardware, and various settings Does not generally help recovery from virus or worm Ways to create a restore point By system: when you install new devices or software By PC technician: whenever circumstance require

Back Up and Restore the System State : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 35 Back Up and Restore the System State Back up the system before making major changes Enables you to undo changes, if necessary How to back up the system state Open up the Backup Utility window Click the Backup tab Check the System State box in the list of items Click Browse to point to where backup will be saved Choose an appropriate location to save backup files Click Start Backup to begin the process Click Start Backup again

Slide 36: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 36 Figure 12-48 Back up the Windows 2000/XP registry and all critical system files

Back Up and Restore the System State (continued) : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 37 Back Up and Restore the System State (continued) Restoring the system state restores the registry How to restore the system state Launch the Windows Backup tool Click the Restore and Manage Media tab Select the backup you want to restore Select the location to which backup is to be restored Click the Start Restore button to start the process Caveat: Windows desktop is needed to use utility

Slide 38: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 38 Figure 12-49 Restore the system state from the Restore and Manage Media tab of the Backup dialog box

Windows XP Automated System Recovery : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 39 Windows XP Automated System Recovery Automated System Recovery (ASR) Backs up entire drive on which Windows is installed Recovery does not include changes since backup Creating the ASR backup and ASR disk Open the Backup or Restore Wizard Click Advanced Mode to open Backup Utility Click Automated System Recovery Wizard Click Next to open Backup Destination Select location to store backup files Click Finish to create backup and ASR disk

Slide 40: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 40 Figure 12-51 The Backup utility can create a backup of drive C and an ASR disk to be used later for the Automated System Recovery utility

Windows XP Automated System Recovery (continued) : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 41 Windows XP Automated System Recovery (continued) Restoring the system using an ASR backup Boot the system from the Windows XP CD Press F6 if your system uses RAID or SCSI Press F2 to start the ASR process Insert the ASR floppy disk From this point, Windows XP Setup manages recovery Planning ahead for Automated System Recovery Create a partition for the OS and software (drive C) Use a second partition for user data (drive D) Backup drive C using ASR, backup D using Ntbackup

Slide 42: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 42 Figure 12-53 As part of the Automatic System Recovery process, Windows XP Setup repartitions and reformats the volume holding Windows XP

The Windows 2000/XP Registry : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 43 The Windows 2000/XP Registry Hierarchical database containing system information Most system components depend on the Registry PC technicians should be familiar with the Registry It may be necessary to manually edit the Registry

Slide 44: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 44 Table 12-4 Components that use the Windows 2000/XP registry

How the Registry is Organized : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 45 How the Registry is Organized Windows Registry Editor: used to view/edit registry Logical organization Inverted tree with Windows Registry at root Six branches (keys); e.g., HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE Subkeys hold other subkeys or values Physical organization Differs significantly from the logical organization Registry is stored in five files called hives HKEY_PERFORMANCE_DATA does not use a hive Hives are stored in %SystemRoot%\system32\config

Slide 46: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 46 Figure 12-54 The Windows 2000/XP registry is logically organized in an upside-down tree structure of keys, subkeys, and values

Slide 47: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 47 Figure 12-56 The relationship between registry subtrees (keys) and hives

Backing Up and Recovering the Registry : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 48 Backing Up and Recovering the Registry Choices: back up system state or individual keys Back up the registry by backing up the system state Backup Utility copies files to one of two locations Restore registry using Ntbackup Also restore registry by copying files to C:\..\config Backing up individual keys in the registry Open the registry editor Select desired key Export the key to a desired location

Slide 49: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 49 Figure 12-57 Using the Windows XP registry editor, you can back up a key and its subkeys using the Export command

Editing the Registry : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 50 Editing the Registry One of the reasons for editing the registry Remove entries remaining after application uninstalled Windows XP has a single registry editor: Regedit.exe Windows 2000 has two registry editors Editing the registry to change name of Recycle Bin Open the Registry Editor Locate subkey for Recyle Bin (under HKCU) Export current key to Desktop for backup purposes Double-click (Default), the name of the value Enter a new name, such as “Jean’s Trash Can”

Slide 51: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 51 Figure 12-60 Editing a registry subkey value

Optimizing the Windows 2000/XP Environment : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 52 Optimizing the Windows 2000/XP Environment Create procedures to backup the system and data Provide for scheduled downloads of updates Protect system with firewall and antivirus software Create user accounts with limited set of privileges Run only needed services and optimize memory

Tools to Manage Software : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 53 Tools to Manage Software Task Manager Used to view running process and performance data Accessed in three ways; e.g., press Ctrl+Alt+Delete Five tabs in Windows XP (three tabs in Windows 2000) Applications: displays running applications Processes: lists system services and other processes Performance: provides details about resource usage Networking: monitors network activity and bandwidth Users: indicates current users on the system Use tools to diagnose and solve performance issues Example: close unneeded services via Processes tab

Slide 54: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 54 Figure 12-62 This Processes tab of Task Manager shows Windows processes running in the background of a barebones Windows XP system

Tools to Manage Software (continued) : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 55 Tools to Manage Software (continued) System Configuration Utility (MSCONFIG) Identifies processes launched at startup Used to temporarily disable a process from loading Not available in Windows 2000 (use third-party utility) To use Msconfig, enter msconfig.exe in the Run dialog Services Console Controls installed Windows and third-party services To launch console, enter Services.msc in Run dialog Types of services: Automatic, Manual, Disabled Properties dialog of a service provides more details

Slide 56: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 56 Figure 12-71 Control startup items on the Startup tab of Msconfig

Slide 57: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 57 Figure 12-72 The Services window is used to manage Windows services

Uninstall Unwanted Software : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 58 Uninstall Unwanted Software Using the Add or Remove Programs applet Access the applet in the Control Panel Select the hardware device or application Click Change/Remove and follow directions onscreen Uninstall routine Second removal choice after Add or Remove Programs Example: WinPatrol application includes this routine Delete program files Third removal choice Files are usually located in C:\Program Files

Slide 59: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 59 Figure 12-74 Use the Add or Remove Programs applet to uninstall a few hardware devices and most applications

Uninstall Unwanted Software (continued) : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 60 Uninstall Unwanted Software (continued) Delete registry entries Open the Registry Editor Locate the Uninstall key to the Windows desktop Backup the Uninstall key, save it to Desktop Locate file to delete (dependent on the Uninstall key) Delete the targeted file Open Add or Remove Programs to verify deletion If the program list is not correct, restore the Uninstall key If program list is correct, delete backup to Uninstall key Restart the PC and troubleshoot any startup errors

Slide 61: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 61 Figure 12-78 Select a subkey under the Uninstall key to display its values and data in the right pane

Managing Windows 2000/XP Memory : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 62 Managing Windows 2000/XP Memory Virtual Memory Manager (VMM) Interface between software and physical/virtual memory Provides a set of memory addresses to each program Memory is allocated in 4KB segments (pages) Pages are stored in RAM or swap file on hard drive Some guidelines for managing memory If drive space is limited, limit maximum size of page file If RAM space is limited, expand page file size to 4 GB Spread page file over several physical devices Do not completely eliminate virtual memory

Slide 63: 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 63 Figure 12-80 Windows 2000/XP memory management

Summary : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 64 Summary Administrator privileges are generally required to install hardware and software Disk Management utility: partition/format hard drive Console: window with administrative tools (snap-ins) Microsoft Management Console (MMC): build customized console windows Windows File Protection: protects system files from inadvertent changes or deletions

Summary (continued) : 

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining your PC, 6e 65 Summary (continued) System Restore utility: returns system to earlier state Two backup tools: Backup Utility and Automated System Recovery (ASR) Windows registry: hierarchical database storing all information about system components Tools to manage software: Task Manager, System Configuration Utility, and the Services console Virtual Memory Manager (VMM): manage physical and virtual memory

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