101_Medieval and Renaissance Europe (FINALS) RECORDING

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Europe: High Middle Ages & Renaissance:

Europe: High Middle Ages & Renaissance 11 th – 15 th Centuries

Terms!:

Terms! Renaissance : fr. “Rebirth” – a term coined to describe the late Medieval period’s renewed fascination with humanistic learning, scientific investigation, and advancement of arts and sciences Philosophy: In the late Medieval period and Renaissance, Philosophy enmeshed science, theology, and speculation. During the Renaissance, a movement towards detaching “hard” sciences from the “soft” sciences and theological debates emerged. Divine Right: The right to rule was bequeathed upon earthly rulers from God. Differentiates from earlier Medieval kings who led wars directly Magna Carta: An English document largely held to be the first codification of controls upon authority by those theoretically inferior. Also thought to be the forerunner of modern constitutions.

Things to Forget:

Things to Forget European (Western) Dominance Europeans through the 16 th century are largely weak Economically Politically fragmented “Inevitability” i.e. post hoc ergo propter hoc – taking what is now and assuming it was always going to happen Divine Guidance i.e. “Manifest Destiny” or God’s blessing, etc.

Divine Right:

Divine Right The Church explains the right of Kings as divinely-gifted God wills the King (and sometimes Queen) to rule Peasants, serfs, artisans must obey Feudal system keeps aristocrats in check (sort of) Owe allegiance to the King must levy troops, crops

Exception to the Rule:

Exception to the Rule 1215 a group of English nobles force Prince John (brother to king Richard) to sign a document regarding the rule of English Kings “ No free man shall be seized or imprisoned, or stripped of his rights or possessions, or outlawed or exiled . nor will we proceed with force against him . except by the lawful judgment of his equals or by the law of the land. To no one will we sell, to no one deny or delay right or justice.”

Real-Life Serfs:

Real-Life Serfs Serfs were exploited for most of the Medieval Era New invader from Asia disrupts European society Military ineffective Diplomacy impossible Prayers unanswered Punishment by God

The Black Plague World Tour:

The Black Plague World Tour 1347 – 1349 the “Black Plague” swept along trade routes Originated in China Progressed along the Silk Road (Airborne?) Around 33% - 50% of Europe’s population dies in 2 years Myth, superstition abound Cats = Devil Worship (Circe) Laughter keeps plague at bay Ring around the Rosie

Art of the Black Plague:

Art of the Black Plague

Silver Lining:

Silver Lining Post-Plague Europe a great time to be a serf! Can demand higher wages because of labor shortage “Serfs” sometimes self-emancipated by changing names, locations Aristocracy upset at wealth of peasants & their fashion sense Sumptuary laws forbid certain types of dress for non-nobles Serfs who remain behind become largely autonomous Lords rely upon local “Reeves” to administer land on their behalf Also become legal experts in their own rights Lacking manpower allows Serfs freedom; eventually serfdom falls out of use as yeoman (free) farmers take over Uneven emancipation; serfs not emancipated in Russia until end of 19 th c.

Why ‘Renaissance’?:

Why ‘Renaissance’? Loaded term to differentiate from Medieval (‘Dark Ages’) period Re-focus upon human learning, understanding Alteration of artistic styles Rise of new forms of government EX: Florentine Republic Flourishing of scientific investigation

Italian City-States:

Italian City-States Italian Peninsula divided amongst powerful, wealthy City-States Genoa, Pisa, Venice, Florence, Milan Made wealthy by trade, shipping within the Mediterranean Crusades made city-states very wealthy Late 14 th , early 15 th c. monopoly on trade in Ottoman, Arab lands Monopoly solidified with fall of Byzantines Combination of wealth, access led to ‘Renaissance’ in Italy by late 14 th c.

Medieval Art:

Medieval Art

Renaissance Art:

Renaissance Art

Renaissance Advancements:

Renaissance Advancements Art, Architecture Michelangelo, Da Vinci Science Galileo Galilei, Da Vinci Literature/Poetry Machiavelli, Giovanni Boccaccio

Spotlight: Anatomy & Physiology:

Spotlight: Anatomy & Physiology Antonio Pollauolo the first “Renaissance” artist given permission by church to dissect human bodies (1460s) Da Vinci’s Vitruvian man illuminates the idea of perfect human proportion & symmetry (1490s) Based upon anatomical dissections Dissections were sometimes clandestine, though a few were officially sanctioned Vitruvian Man  named after Roman Architect, Vitruvius Ideal proportions for buildings Da Vinci, Michelangelo, others pioneered medical descriptors for accuracy Based upon architectural terms, adopted for human body Dissections published after death become standard medical techniques for centuries Art fueled science, science fueled art

Fall of Constantinople:

Fall of Constantinople Byzantine Empire (Medieval Romans) barely hold onto Constantinople until 1452 Ottoman Empire led by Mehmet II conquer Constantinople Put an end to a sickly, weak ‘Empire’ Move capitol of Ottoman Empire to Constantinople Jews, Muslims fleeing Reconquista find sanctuary in Constantinople 2 nd class citizens but better than Europe News of Inquisition reaches Ottoman Empire quickly

Ottoman Empire:

Ottoman Empire

Henry the Navigator:

Henry the Navigator Portuguese prince Fascinated with exploration, maps Funded expeditions to uncover new lands for Portuguese Looking for alternate route to India, China Begins rich tradition of Portuguese ‘Navigators’ and explorers Bartolomeo Diaz Vasco de Gama

Portugal & India:

Portugal & India Vasco de Gama sails armed vessels into Indian Ocean Attacks, burns Muslim vessels Piracy Portuguese land in Calicut 1498 CE Trade for spices, looking for Christian allies De Gama’s first shipment of peppercorns from India returns 3x profit for entire voyage Portuguese attempt to conquer Calicut Driven out my Muslim Mughal Empire Establish stronghold in small port town Ally w/ Hindus v. Muslims

Portugal & China:

Portugal & China Portuguese arrive in China 1514 Offensive actions, smell Ex washing clothes in urine Driven out by Chinese until 1557 Allowed to set up trading in Macao Must pay yearly tribute to continue trading in China Chinese refuse to treat Portuguese as equals

Portugal & Japan:

Portugal & Japan 1542 Portuguese delegation arrives in Japan Missionaries Trade deputation First European to visit fabled land Marco Polo wrote about Introduce guns, cannons Portuguese begin to learn Japanese language, customs Kowtow to Shogun Meekness in eyes of Samurai Spread Christianity

Cusp of the Age of Exploration:

Cusp of the Age of Exploration Italian City States spawn Renaissance imitators throughout Europe into the 17 th c. Muslim control of the Silk Road & traditional trade routes prompt Spanish, Portuguese exploration West, South Understanding of the world increasing through separation of science from superstition, misunderstanding, misinformation Nation-states (England, France, Spain, etc.) emerging but not yet solidified.

Homework!:

Homework! Chapters 12 & 13 + Sources! Finals this week! Don’t forget and leave it to the last minute Email me with any problems BEFORE Sunday, or I cannot help

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