resin& resin combinations

Category: Education

Presentation Description

Lecture notes on resin and resin combinations


Presentation Transcript

Resins and resin combinations :

Resins and resin combinations PURVI H KAKRANI 3/10/2014 1 PURVI H KAKRANI

Resins and resins combination:

Resins and resins combination The term ‘resin’ is applied to more or less solid, amorphous products of complex chemical nature. These are amorphous mixtures of essential oils, oxygenated products of terpenes and carboxylic acids 3/10/2014 2 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

Resins and related resinous products are produced in plants during normal growth or secreted as a result of injury to the plants They are usually occur in schizogenous or schizolysigenous cavities or ducts 3/10/2014 3 PURVI H KAKRANI

General properties :

General properties Physical characters – All resins are heavier than water , they are usually amorphous ,hard, and brittle solids. They are insoluble in water and usually insoluble in petroleum ether but dissolve more or less completely in alcohol, chloroform and ether. 3/10/2014 4 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

Chemically , resins are complex mixtures of resin acids, resin alcohols (resinols), resin phenols (resinotannols), esters and chemically inert compounds known as resenes. Many resins ,when boiled with alkalies yield soaps 3/10/2014 5 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

By the action of heat they soften yielding clear, adhesive fluids , Resins burn with a characteristic, smoky flame. Resins are often associated with volatile oils ( oleoresins ), with gums ( gum-resins ) or with oil and gum ( oleo-gum-resins ). Resins may also be combined in a glycosidal manner with sugars. 3/10/2014 6 PURVI H KAKRANI

Chemical nature : :

Chemical nature : Chemically resins are not pure substances but complex mixtures of several resinous substances as resin acids, resin alcohols, resin esters, and neutral resins. Resins do not contain nitrogen elements ( Non nitrogenous compounds) 3/10/2014 7 PURVI H KAKRANI

Classification of resins:

Classification of resins Resins are classified in three different ways: Taxonomical classification , i.e. according to botanical origin, e.g. Berberidaceae resins. Classification according to predominating chemical constituent ; e.g. acid resins, resene resins, glycosidal resins; etc. 3/10/2014 8 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

3. Resins may be classified according to the portion of the main constituents of the resin or resin combination ; e.g. resins, oleoresins, oleo-gum-resins, balsams. 3/10/2014 9 PURVI H KAKRANI

Classification of resins :

Classification of resins 1. Acid resins – Here the resins occur along with their acids. Examples – Colophony – Abietic acid Sandrac - Sandracolic acid Myrrh - Commiphoric acid Copaiba - Copaivic acid 3/10/2014 10 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

2. Ester resins – This group contains esters as the chief constituents of the resins- Examples Benzoin and Storax , Benzoin contains benzyl benzoate, Storax contains cinnamyl cinnamate 3/10/2014 11 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

3.Resin alcohols – They occurs as in free state or as esters , examples – Balsam of peru with perru resino tannol Guaiaccum resin with guaic resinol 3/10/2014 12 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

They are also further classified into – Resins : colophony, cannabis. Oleoresins : copaiba, ginger. Oleo-gum-resins : asafoetida, myrrh. Balsams : balsam of Tolu, balsam of Peru. Glycoresins : jalap Resenes : Asafoetida, colophony 3/10/2014 13 PURVI H KAKRANI


Balsams Balsams are resinous mixtures that contain large proportions of cinnamic acid, benzoic acid or both or esters of these acids. The term “balsam” is often wrongly applied to oleoresins and should be reserved for such substances as balsam of Peru , balsam of Tolu and storax , which contain a high proportion of aromatic balsamic acids. 3/10/2014 14 PURVI H KAKRANI

Preparation of resins:

Preparation of resins Two general classes of resinous substances are recognized and this classification is based on the method used in preparing them : Natural resins , occur as exudates from plants, produced normally or as result of pathogenic conditions 3/10/2014 15 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

Example by artificial punctures e.g. mastic; or deep cuts in the wood of the plant e.g. turpentine, or by hammering and scorching, e.g. balsam of Peru. 3/10/2014 16 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

Prepared resins; are obtained by different methods. The drug containing resins is powdered and extracted with alcohol till exhaustion. The Concentrated alcoholic extract is either evaporated, or poured into water and the precipitated resin is collected, washed and carefully dried. 3/10/2014 17 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

In the preparation of oleoresins ; ether or acetone having lower boiling point are used. The volatile oil portion is removed through distillation. When the resin occurs associated with gum ( gum-resins ), the resin is extracted with alcohol leaving the gum insoluble. 3/10/2014 18 PURVI H KAKRANI


DR.U.SRINIVASA, M.PHARMA,Ph.D Crude drugs containing resins And resin combinations 3/10/2014 19 PURVI H KAKRANI


1. CANNABIS Synonym – Ganja Biological source – It consists of dried flowering tops of the cultivated female plant s of Cannabis sativa Family - Cannabinaceae 3/10/2014 20 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

Diagnostic characters – 1.Trichomes – Numerous, both covering and glandular trichomes are present. Covering trichomes- Unicellur, slightly curved, pointed at one end and enlarged and contains cystolith ( Dragger shaped) Glandular trichomes – Two types of glandular trichomes are present . 3/10/2014 21 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

1.Multiseriate and multicellur tongue shaped stalk with a globular head. 2.Short one celled stalk and 8 celled head Chemical constituents - It contains 15-20% of resin, which contain major active principle 1,3,4 Tetra hydro cannabinol ( Commonly known as Δ THC) 3/10/2014 22 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

The resin also contains cannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid etc Indian hemp seeds contains about 20% fixed oil. Uses – 1.Sedative 2. Narcotic analgesic 3.Hypnotic ( Induce sleep) 3/10/2014 23 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

4. It has psychotropic properties due to 1,3,4 Tetra hydro cannabinol 5.Used as an antibacterial agent 3/10/2014 24 PURVI H KAKRANI

2. Podophyllum :

2. Podophyllum Synonym – Indian podophyllum Biological source – It consists of the dried rhizome and root of Podophyllum hexandrum ( Podophyllum emodi ) Family - Berberidaceae 3/10/2014 25 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

Diagnostic characters – 1. Sclereids – In groups, uniformly thickened and rectangular in shape 2. Wood elements – Large number of vessels, either entire or fragments of the same showing reticulate thickening 3/10/2014 26 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

3.Starch grains – Abundant, simple ( Spherical to ovoid) and compound ( 3-8) 4. Parenchyma – Parenchyma fully loaded with starch grains 3/10/2014 27 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

Chemical constituents – It contains 7-15% of resin known as podophyllin . Roots contain more resin than the rhizomes. The active principle in podophyllin resin is known as podophyllotoxin(40%) in Indian variety , alpha and β peltatins in the American podophyllum. It also contains Quercetin , Kaempferol, astragalin, essential oil 3/10/2014 28 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

Uses – Used in the treatment of cancer Used as purgative Used as bitter tonic 3/10/2014 29 PURVI H KAKRANI

3.Ginger :

3. Ginger Biological source – It consists of the rhizomes of Zingiber officinalae Family – Zingiberaceae Diagnostic characters – 1. Odour – Pleasant aromatic 2.Taste - Pungent 3/10/2014 30 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

3. Parenchyma – Some of the cells contain yellowish brown oleo- resinous cells which occur either in fragments OR droplets 4. Starch grains – Characteristic , abundant, simple, ovoid or sack shaped 3/10/2014 31 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

5. Fibres and Vessels – Fibres ( Non – lignified ) in groups associated with vessels Chemical constituents – It contains 1-2% of volatile oil, 5-8% pungent principle, resinous mass and starch The chief constituent of volatile oil is Zingiberine . It also contains gingerol and traces of shogaol 3/10/2014 32 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

Uses – 1. Used as stomachic 2. Used as an aromatic 3. Used as a carminative 4. Used as stimulant 5. Used as flavouring agent 6. Ginger oil is used in mouth washes, ginger bevarages and liquors 3/10/2014 33 PURVI H KAKRANI

4.Capsicum :

4.Capsicum Synonym – Chillies Biological source – It consists of the dried ripe fruits of Capsicum frutescens or Capsicum annum or capsicum minimum Family – Solanaceae 3/10/2014 34 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

Diagnostic characters – 1. Oil globules – Abundant and red colored 2. Sclerides – From the endocarp evenly thickened and pitted ( in surface view) 3. Epidermis of the testa – Unevenly thickened and yellowish green in colour ( in surface view) 3/10/2014 35 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

Chemical constituents – It contains an extremely pungent principle Capsaicin, red colouring matter Capsanthin. It also contains Ascorbic acid, carotin, red pigments etc 3/10/2014 36 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

Uses – 1. Used as a spice 2. Used as carminative 3. Used as nervine stimulant 4. Used as a source of vitamin- C 5. Used as an appetizer 6 . Used as a stomachic 7.Externally used as counter- irritant in rheumatism 3/10/2014 37 PURVI H KAKRANI


5. Benzoin Synonyms – Gum benzoin, Luban, Loban, Sambrani, Lobana (Sumatra benzoin) Biological source- Benzoin is the balsamic resin obtained from the incised stem of Styrax benzoin, Styrax paralleloneurus Family – Styraceae Siam benzoin – It consists of balsamic resin of Styrax tonkinensis, Family - Styraceae 3/10/2014 38 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

Chemical constituents – It contains 23% of balsamic acids – Cinnamic acid and benzoic acid It contains 70-80% resin consisting of triterpenoids, siaresinolic acid and suma resinolic acid It also contains vanillin, sterol, phenyl propyl cinnamate responsible for the aromatic smell 3/10/2014 39 PURVI H KAKRANI

Chemical tests -:

Chemical tests - 1. Heat small amount of benzoin slowly in a dry test tube --- melts and evolves white fumes is produced. Which on condensation form crystalline sublimate 2.Benzoin heated with potassium permanganate solution --- odour of benzaldehyde ( Sumatra benzoin ) 3/10/2014 40 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

3. Benzoin is extracted with alcohol and to the extract add water --- milky white solution is formed * 4. Digest benzoin with few drops of petroleum ether for 5 minutes . Pour 1ml of the etherial solution in a porcelain dish containing 2-3 drops of con. Sulphuric acid and rotate the dish --- reddish brown colour is produced ( Benzoin confirmed) 3/10/2014 41 PURVI H KAKRANI

Uses -:

Uses - Used as an antiseptic Used as an expectorant Used as a stimulant It is used in the preparation of Compound benzoin tincture 3/10/2014 42 PURVI H KAKRANI

Siam benzoin :

Siam benzoin Chemical constituents – It contains about 70% crystalline and 10% amorphous coniferyl benzoate, 10% free benzoic acid, 6% siaresinolic acid, vanillin, cinnamyl benzoate ( Absence of cinnamic acid) Uses – Antiseptic, expectorant, used in perfumery, cosmotics etc 3/10/2014 43 PURVI H KAKRANI

6. Asafoetida :

6. Asafoetida Synonyms – Heeng, hing, hingu Biological source – It is the oleo-gum-resin obtained by incising the living rhizomes and roots of Ferula foetida, Ferula asafoetida Family - Umbelliferae 3/10/2014 44 PURVI H KAKRANI

Chemical constituents - :

Chemical constituents - It contains 4-20% of volatile oil, 45-60% of resin and 20% of gum. Volatile oil contains Pinene, organic disulphide (isobutylpropenyl disulphide responsible for alliaceous odour) Resin contains free asaresinotannaol and in combination with ferulic acid 3/10/2014 45 PURVI H KAKRANI

Chemical tests - :

Chemical tests - 1.Powder triturated with water – yellowish orange emulsion is produced. *2. Combined umbelliferone test – Drug is boiled with hydrochloric acid for 5minutes .It is filtered and ammonia is added to the filtrate – A blue fluorescence is produced . 3/10/2014 46 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

3. Drug is treated with few drops of 50% nitric acid – green colour is produced 4. Drug is treated with few drops of sulphuric acid – red colour is produced which changes to violet on washing with water. Uses – As a carminative, an expectorant, an antispasmodic , as a laxative, nervine tonic 3/10/2014 47 PURVI H KAKRANI


7.Colophony Synonyms – Chir, long needle pine Biological source – Colophony is the solid residue obtained after distilling the oleo-resin from various species of pinus- pinus longifolia, pinus palustris, pinus maritima Family - Pinaceae 3/10/2014 48 PURVI H KAKRANI

Chemical constituents- :

Chemical constituents- It contains resin acids – abietic acid , neutral inert substance – resenes, esters of fatty acid. Chemical tests – 1.Dissolve the powdered drug in 2-3ml of acetic anhydride in a test tube and a drop of con. Sulphuric acid – violet colour is produced 3/10/2014 49 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

2. An alcoholic solution of colophony is acidic to litmus 3.Colophony is dissolved in light petroleum and filtered. To the filtrate 2-3 times its volume , dilute copper acetate solution is added – emerald green colour is seen in the petroleum layer ( upper layer ) 3/10/2014 50 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

Uses – Used in the preparation of plasters and ointments. Used in the manufacture of varnishes and disinfecting liquids. 3/10/2014 51 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

Questions – 1.Define resins and classify with examples (5M). 2.Give the physical and chemical properties of resins (5M). 3.Define resins and add a note on preparation of resins (5M). 4.Give the diagnostic characters for Ginger and Podophyllum (5M). 5.B.S/Family/A.C/Uses of Benzoin and Asafoetida (5M). 6.What is Cannabis? Give its active constituents and uses (5M). 3/10/2014 52 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

7.Give the identification tests for Colophony and Benzoin (5M) 8.Give the source, diagnostic characters, active constituents and uses of Capsicum (5M). 9.Give the chemical tests for the identification of Asafoetida (5M). 10.Give the source, active constituents and uses of Ginger and Podophyllum (5M) 11.Explain with neat labeled diagram macroscophy of Ginger rhizome (5M) 3/10/2014 53 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

12.Write the chemical structure and uses for Cinnamic acid and Zingiberene (5M). 13.Differentiate by chemical tests Siam and Sumatra benzoin (5M). 14.Write a note on Combined Umbelliferone test and its significances (5M). 15.Write a note on chemical nature and method of manufacture of resins (5M). 16. Compare the constituents of Ginger and Capsicum (5M). 3/10/2014 54 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

17.What do you understand by the terms Resin, Balsams, Oleo-resin, and glycol-resin? (5M). 18.Give the powder characters of Cannabis (2M). 19.Write the active constituents and uses of Benzoin (2M). 20. Give the chemical tests for Colophony (2M). 21.Define balsams with examples (2M). 22.Give the adulterants for Ginger and Cannabis (2M). 23.Give the source and uses of a balsam drug (2M). 3/10/2014 55 PURVI H KAKRANI

PowerPoint Presentation:

3/10/2014 56 PURVI H KAKRANI

authorStream Live Help