# GIS Education and Basics

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Category: Education

## Presentation Description

Ananta Rao Duppala

## Presentation Transcript

### INTRODUCTION TO GIS:

INTRODUCTION TO GIS BY ANANTA RAO DUPPALA Instr ( Spl ) [email protected]

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FEW FRQUENT QUESTIONS IN GENERAL WHICH ISTHE SHORTEST ROUTE FROM POINT ‘A’ TO POINT ‘B’? WHICH IS THE ALTERNATIVE ROUTE IF SHORTEST ROUTE IS NOT AVAILABLE? IS AN OBJECT VISIBLE FROM AN ANOTHER OBJECT? WHAT KIND OF TERRAIN WE WILL FACE WHILE ADVANCING TO OBJECTIVE? WHAT ARE THE DEMOGRAPHIC DETAILS OF AOR (AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY)? [email protected]

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WHAT WOULD WE DO? [email protected]

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LET US SEE ….. ASK A MAP STUDY IT ANALYSE THE INFO FIND OUT THE SOLUTION(S) CONFORM THE INPUTS BY RECCE . [email protected]

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RESULTS? TIME TAKING PROCESS MORE HUMAN EFFORT DIFFICULT ANALYSIS ETC., ETC., [email protected]

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HOW CAN WE OVER COME? THE ANSWER MAY BE GIS OPEN GIS APPLICATION FIRE THE QUERIES ON GIS AND GET THE ANSWERS. VISUALIZE THE AREA IN 3D. CONFORM THE INPUTS BY RECCE . GET REQD INFO FOR DSS DSS (DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM) MAY BE CALLED AS GIS [email protected]

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GLOBAL TO LOCAL SCALE OF GIS DATA [email protected]

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WHAT IS GIS? [email protected]

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What is GIS? A Computer based system to :- Store Retrieve Manage Display & Analyze data which are spatially referenced to earth. Capture [email protected]

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GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS) ARE COMPUTERIZED SYSTEMS DESIGNED FOR CAPTURE, STORAGE, RETRIEVAL AND ANALYSIS OF GEOGRAPHICALLY REFERENCED DATA. FORMAL DEFINITION [email protected]

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WHAT IS not GIS? GPS – GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM A STATIC MAP – PAPER OR DIGITAL MAPS ARE OFTEN A “PRODUCT” OF A GIS A WAY TO VISUALIZE THE ANALYSIS A SOFTWARE PACKAGE [email protected]

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LOCATION WHERE IS IT…? CONDITION WHAT IS THE TYPE…? TREND WHAT HAS CHANGED…? ROUTING WHICH IS THE BEST WAY…? PATTERN WHAT IS THE PATTERN…? MODELING WHAT IF…? CAPABILITY OF GIS [email protected]

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GIS STORES RELATED GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES IN SEPARATE COLLECTION S OF FILES CALLED MAP LAYERS. MAP LAYERS CAN BE REUSED EASILY AND ASSEMBLED INTO ANY NUMBER OF MAP COMPOSITIONS AND OVERLAID FOR ANALYSIS. UNIQUE CAPABILITY OF GIS [email protected]

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LAYERS OF GIS [email protected] Topography Hydrography Census Highways Places

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TYPES OF DATA SPATIAL DATA DATA USED IN GIS A SPATIAL DATA VECTOR RASTER [email protected]

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16 Placename Grid co-ordinate Postcode Distance & bearing Description Latitude / Longitude WHAT MAKES DATA SPATIAL? [email protected]

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CHARACTERISTICS OF SPATIAL DATA GEOMETRY THE SHAPE OF A BUILDING OR COUNTY THE COURSE OF A RIVER, THE ROUTE OF A ROAD THE SHAPE OF THE LANDSCAPE, RELIEF [email protected]

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LOCATION DESCRIPTION: KINGSTON UNIVERSITY POST CODE: KT1 2EE GRID REFERENCE: 518106.72 168530.37 (West, North) LATITUDE/LONGITUDE: 0° 21’ 55.38”W, 49° 36’ 17.62”N CHARACTERISTICS OF SPATIAL DATA [email protected]

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CHARACTERISTICS OF SPATIAL DATA TOPOLOGY CONNECTED TO WITHIN ADJACENT TO NORTH OF . . . WITHIN THE HISAR CANTT AREA OPPOSITE TCP II GATE NORTH OF HISAR RAILWAY STATION ADJACENT TO DELHI - HISAR NATIONAL HIGHWAY [email protected]

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DATA MODELS VECTOR MODEL DISCRETE REPRESENTATIONS OF REALITY RASTER MODEL USE SQUARE CELLS TO MODEL REALITY X,Y Rows Columns X,Y X,Y X,Y X,Y [email protected]

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DATA MODELS [email protected]

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DATA FORMATS [email protected] RASTER DATA : TIFF (200DPI) VECTOR DATA : DVD AND DGN ELEVATION DATA DTED - 1 (1:250000) DTED - 2 (1:50000) VECTOR FORMATS DGN (BENTLY/INTERGRAPH) PIX ( GEOMETICA) DXF (AUTO CAD) SHP (ARCINFO/ARCGIS) DVD (SOI) RASTER FORMATS IMG (ERDAS) TIFF DTED (SOI) COT JPEF

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HOW CAN WE MAKE DATA MODELING? [email protected]

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EXAMINE THIS PIC FIND OUT THE FEATURES YOU HAVE IDENTIFIED [email protected]

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STEP 1 FEATURES BUILDINGS ROAD CENTRELINES LAMP COLUMNS GAS PIPES CTV ACCESS COVERS ROAD SURFACES [email protected]

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STEP 2 POINT LINE POLYGON [email protected]

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27 Feature : Building Object : Polygon Entity : Tourist Information Bureau STEP 3 [email protected]

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28 NAME : RAILWAY STATION ADDRESS: 5 MARKET PLACE TOWN: MUMBAI OWNER: GOVE OF INDIA TEL. NO: 0181 547 1245 AREA : 1300 SQ M ATTRIBUTE SPATIAL DATA [email protected] INFORMATION ABOUT, WHAT CAN BE FOUND AT A PARTICULAR LOCATION

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NAME : IB BUNGLOW ADDRESS: P22/02 GANDHI CHOWK TOWN: DELHI OWNER: MIN OF DEF GOI TEL. NO: 0113242321 AREA : 1300 SQ M MEMBERS: ALL OFFRS & FAMILIES ATTRIBUTES - MPOV [email protected]

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REAL-WORLD ENTITIES ARE ABSTRACTED INTO THREE BASIC SHAPES Points Retail stores Lines Streets Areas/Polygons Land uses [email protected] REPRESENTING FEATURES IN VECTOR DATA

### Vector vs Raster Graphics:

Vector vs Raster Graphics Image Source: Burrough, Peter A. and Rachael A. McDonnell. (1998). Principles of Geographic Information Systems . p 27. [email protected]

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VECTOR RASTER RELATIVELY LOW DATA VOLUME RELATIVELY HIGH DATA VOLUME FAST ER DISPLAY SLOW ER DISPLAY CAN ALSO STORE ATTRIBUTES HAS NO ATTRIBUTE INFORMATION LESS PLEASING TO THE EYE MORE PLEASING TO THE EYE DOES NOT DICTATE HOW FEATURES SHOULD LOOK IN THE GIS INHERENTLY STORES HOW FEATURES SHOULD LOOK IN THE GIS VECTOR VS RASTER [email protected]

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AN INTEGRATION OF FIVE BASIC COMPONENTS / Methods / Analysts / Processes [email protected] COMPONENTS OF GIS

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Hardware Data Base *Spatial Data *Digital Map Data *Rectified Geo Ref *Aerial Photo/Image *Non spatial Data GIS Skill Set will Comprise Suitable Skilled & Knowledgeable Persons in map data acquisition & mgt using Latest tech & map Projection systems. Software Interoperable with other systems , OGC compliant GIS S/W, API. It should have capability to integrate map, image, digital ortho -photo, text data & geo-processing services With virtual earth applications e.g with Google map etc. [email protected] COMPONENTS OF GIS

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[email protected] BASIC FUNCTIONS OF GIS

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Query Analyze Store Display Capture Output Buildings Streets Reality Customers [email protected] FUNCTIONS OF GIS

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DATA ACQUSITION / CAPTURING DATA A GIS MUST PROVIDE METHODS FOR INPUTTING GEOGRAPHIC (COORDINATE) AND TABULAR (ATTRIBUTE) DATA. THE MORE INPUT METHODS AVAILABLE, THE MORE VERSATILE THE GIS. DATA STORAGE THERE ARE TWO BASIC DATA MODELS FOR GEOGRAPHIC DATA STORAGE: VECTOR AND RASTER. A GIS SHOULD BE ABLE TO STORE GEOGRAPHIC DATA IN BOTH MODELS. [email protected] FUNCTIONS OF GIS

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[email protected] FUNCTIONS OF GIS QUERYING DATA A GIS MUST PROVIDE UTILITIES FOR FINDING SPECIFIC FEATURES BASED ON LOCATION OR ATTRIBUTE VALUE. ANALYZING DATA A GIS MUST BE ABLE TO ANSWER QUESTIONS REGARDING THE INTERACTION OF SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MULTIPLE DATASETS.

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[email protected] FUNCTIONS OF GIS DATA DISPLAY A GIS MUST HAVE TOOLS FOR VISUALIZING GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES USING A VARIETY OF SYMBOLOGY. OUTPUT A GIS MUST BE ABLE TO DISPLAY RESULTS IN A VARIETY OF FORMATS, SUCH AS MAPS, REPORTS, AND GRAPHS.

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480585.5, 3769234.6 483194.1, 3768432.3 485285.8, 3768391.2 484327.4, 3768565.9 483874.7, 3769823.0 Hardcopy maps GPS GIS Data Coordinates Digital data [email protected] DATA ACQUISITION

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Vector formats Discrete representations of reality Raster formats Use square cells to model reality Reality (A highway) X,Y Rows Columns X,Y X,Y X,Y X,Y [email protected] DATA STORAGE

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IDENTIFYING SPECIFIC FEATURES IDENTIFYING FEATURES BASED ON CONDITIONS Florida counties with a population greater than 300,000 [email protected] QUERY

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Which parcels are within 50 feet of the road? Well type Drilled Building owner Smith Soil type Sandy Proximity Overlay Network [email protected] DATA ANALYSIS

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EXAMPLES SHOW THE LOC OF ALL THE VILLAGES ASTRIDE IB IN WHICH THE POPULATION IS MORE THAN 10000. REAL ESTATE VALUE PER UNIT AREA OF THOSE HOMES SOLD VIS-À-VIS THEIR DISTANCE FROM PUBLIC UTILITIES LIKE AIRPORT, RLY STN, SCHOOLS ETC. [email protected] DATA ANALYSIS

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[email protected] OUT PUT

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SOURCES OF GIS [email protected]

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Retrieval of Information Maps Satellite Images Aerial Photos Attribute Data G P S TYPICAL DATA SOURCES OF GIS [email protected]

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BETTER INFORMATION MANAGEMENT LAYER DATA IN VARIOUS FORMATS HIGHER QUALITY ANALYSIS ABILITY TO CARRY OUT “WHAT IF?” SCENARIOS IMPROVE PROJECT EFFICIENCY SUPPORTS COMMON DSS 48 ADVANTAGES OF GIS [email protected]

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anantara[email protected] APPLICATION OF GIS

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RDBMS ‘Information Base’ Operational data Geographic data Data entry forms, tables etc Reports, returns [email protected] COMBO MIS - GIS

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Cl 24 Rd Cl 9 Rd Town X Town Y Town Z BASIC MAP ENTITY LAYER [email protected]

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A Bn Town X B Bn Town Y C Bn Town Z USER DEFINED LAYER [email protected]

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Cl 24 Rd Cl 9 Rd Town X Town Y Town Z B Bn A Bn C Bn COMBO LAYER [email protected]

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ACQUISITION OF TARGETS IN AREA OF OPERATIONS. SITING OF WEAPON SYSTEMS. FLIGHT-LINE-MASKING WITH VERTICAL OBSTRUCTIONS. MOBILITY MAPS. [email protected] FIRE SUPPORT

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WIRED COMMUNICATION. WIRELESS COMMUNICATION. SURVIVABILITY. NETWORK MANAGEMENT CENTRE. NETWORK OPERATION CENTRE. GARRISON NETWORKS. [email protected] COMMUNICATION

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MOBILITY MAPS FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF VEHICLES. CHOKE POINTS ALONG SUPPLY ROUTES. LIKELY LOGISTICS SUPPORT AREAS. POSSIBLE RE-SUPPLY ROUTES. COVER AND CONCEALMENT ALONG ROUTES. STORES MANAGEMENT. LOCATION OF LOGISTICS FACILITIES. CASUALTY EVACUATION ROUTES. LOCATION OF HOSPITALS. LOCATION OF REPAIR TEAMS. REQUIREMENT OF RECOVERY RESOURCES. PROVISION OF ENGINEER SUPPORT FOR LOGISTICS SUSTENANCE. [email protected] LOGISTICS

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DETAILED GIS DATA REQD DURING IS PHYSICAL STRUCTURES. POWER LINES. TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION LINES. WATER PIPE LINES. SEWAGE SYSTEM. BUILDING WALL THICKNESS. [email protected] INTERNAL SECURITY

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ASSET MANAGEMENT AND TRACKING ALLOTMENT OF ACCOMMODATION. INVENTORY MANAGEMENT. LAYOUT OF WATER, POWER AND TELECOMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTURE. MANAGEMENT OF COMPLAINTS AND REPAIRS. FORCE PROTECTION AND SECURITY MANAGEMENT OF SECURITY. VEHICLE TRACKING. MONITORING CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE AND HIGH-RISK TARGETS. MANAGEMENT OF EMERGENCY OPERATIONS AND DISASTER RESPONSE TEAMS. [email protected] MGMT OF MIL STNS AND EST

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SPECIAL FORCE OPERATIONS INVOLVES SMALL MOBILE DISPERSED FORCES OVER A WIDE AREA OF OPERATIONS. GIS PROVIDES DATA OVER VERY LARGE AREA IN NEAR REAL TIME. [email protected] SF OP

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SPATIAL DATA ACCESS – IN CANADA AND IN ALBERTA GIS TODAY …. [email protected]

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[email protected]

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ADVANTAGES OF GIS EXPLORING BOTH GEOGRAPHICAL AND THEMATIC COMPONENTS OF DATA IN A HOLISTIC WAY STRESSES GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS OF A RESEARCH QUESTION ALLOWS HANDLING AND EXPLORATION OF LARGE VOLUMES OF DATA ALLOWS INTEGRATION OF DATA FROM WIDELY DISPARATE SOURCES ALLOWS ANALYSIS OF DATA TO EXPLICITLY INCORPORATE LOCATION ALLOWS A WIDE VARIETY OF FORMS OF VISUALISATION TOWARDS CONCLUSION…. [email protected]

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LIMITATIONS OF GIS DATA ARE EXPENSIVE LEARNING CURVE ON GIS SOFTWARE CAN BE LONG SHOWS SPATIAL RELATIONSHIPS BUT DOES NOT PROVIDE ABSOLUTE SOLUTIONS ORIGINS IN THE EARTH SCIENCES AND COMPUTER SCIENCE. SOLUTIONS MAY NOT BE APPROPRIATE FOR HUMANITIES RESEARCH TOWARDS CONCLUSION…. [email protected]

### FUTURISTIC TRENDS :

FUTURISTIC TRENDS [email protected] WEB GIS 3D GIS MOBILE GIS

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QUESTIONS? [email protected]

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THANK YOU [email protected]