6. Semantics 2-Semantic Relations

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Semantics (2): Semantic Relations :

Semantics (2): Semantic Relations TC233EN Linguistics for Primary School Teachers


What is semantics? Semantics and pragmatics Why should ESL/EFL teachers know about the semantics of English? What does it mean to ‘know’ a word? The previous class…


In defining words, and how we understand them, we can also consider semantic (lexical) relationships …

Semantic/lexical Relations :

Semantic/lexical Relations We describe the meanings of words in terms of their relationships. In doing so, we are characterizing the meaning of a word NOT in terms of component features , but in terms of relationship to other words. ‘conceal’ ==‘hide’. ‘shallow’ +’deep’. ‘daffodil’>’a kind of flower’. Words have ‘relationships’.


In defining words, we can consider semantic (lexical) relationships , such as:

Homonyms & Homophones :

Homonyms & Homophones Words that have the same spelling and pronunciation but have different meanings like Bank and bank are called… Homonyms : Examples: Bank and bank Words that have the same oral form ( pronunciation ) but not the same spelling and have different meanings. These are called… Homophones . Examples: Coarse and course T wo and Too Flew and flu and flue , lead (the metal) and led (the past tense) bear and bare , meat and meet , right and write David Crystal calls these forms “half” identical


Homographs Homo (same) + -graph(written form) Words that have the same written from but different meaning; may or may not be pronounced the same way. http://examples.yourdictionary.com/examples-of-homographs.html Examples: Desert ( abandon (a person, cause) and desert ( a large area of land, usually in a hot region) fair (pleasing in appearance) and fair (market) wind ( wĭnd ) and wind ( wīnd )(Different pronunciation) http://www.yourdictionary.com/homograph Check: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/homograph And https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/homograph

Synonyms & Antonyms:

Synonyms & Antonyms Synonyms: Words having the same or nearly the same meaning. Automobile/car, cat/feline, reply/answer, muskmelon/cantaloupe, pavement/sidewalk, talk/speak Antonyms: Words with opposite meanings. Small/big, clean/dirty, alive/dead, parent/child, teacher/student, buy/sell.


Polysemy Polysemy, or polysemia , (Single word is polysemous ) are words that have multiple meanings that are related by extension. The name comes from Greek poly (many) and semy (to do with meaning, as in semantics ). For example: paper --writing materials, government documents, scientific reports, family archives or newspapers. head – part of the body; top man in a company, – of a person, of a bed, of a mountain, – point in time arranged. Think-pair-share paper head


Hyponymy Think-pair-share


Hyponymy is the relation between a more general and more specific word: a relation of inclusion. A hyponym is a word that has a more specific meaning that belongs to a superordinate (a.k.a. hypernym ) word. Flower is a hyponym of plant. Spoon is a hyponym of cutlery. Animals is the hypernym of dog, bird,etc . Plant: flower/tulip Bright: Shining, intelligent Furniture: Chair, table, desk, bed. (bed is a hyponymy of furniture) Hyponymy


Explicit comparison between two things. Simile Examples He's as tall as a tree. My friend Kim is like a stone.


Metaphor Examples "He's a tree - so tall and unmovable" My friend Kim is a chicken( a goose, a cow, a dog, a cat, a crab) Use of a word to establish a comparison between two unrelated things. comparison is based on the similarities


Checkpoint a. John is a tiger. Metaphor c. You’re as light as a feather. Simile


Take away (s) What have we learnt today?