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Grammar Book:

Grammar Book Por Graciela Abell 2nd

Tabla de contenidos:

T abla de contenidos 1. Subjective in Adjective Clauses 2. Tú Commands 3. Nosotros Commands 4. Past Participles used as Adjectives 5. Present Perfect 6. Past Perfect 7. Future Tense 8. Conditional Tense 9. Past Subjunctive

Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses:

Subjunctive in Adjective Clauses An adjective clause is a group of words –containing a verb– that tells something about a noun. This noun to which the clause refers is called its antecedent. Example: Necesito un libro que me explique esto.

Tú Commands:

Tú Commands Remember, formal speech is generally used to be polite or to express respect. Informal, or familiar, speech is used among friends, coworkers, relatives, or when addressing a child. The affirmative informal ( tú ) commands are formed the same way as the present indicative Ud . form: ( hablar - ar + a = habla ) (comer - er + e = come) ( escribir - ir + e = escribe )

Nosotros Commands:

Nosotros Commands The nosotros command is used when the speaker suggests an action to be performed by a group of people he or she belongs to. There are two ways to form nosotros commands in Spanish: the subjunctive form and the ir + a + infinitive form. Trabajemos juntos . (Let’s work together.) Comamos aquí . (Let’s eat here.) Vamos a ir a la playa. (Let’s go to the beach.) ¡ Vamos a divertirnos ! (Let’s have some fun!)

Past Participles Used as Adjectives:

Past Participles Used as Adjectives Most past participles can be used as adjectives. Like other adjectives, they agree in gender and number with the nouns that they modify. componer - compuesto describir - descrito devolver - devuelto

Present Perfect:

Present Perfect The present perfect is formed by combining the auxiliary verb "has" or "have" with the past participle. In Spanish, the present perfect tense is formed by using the present tense of the auxiliary verb " haber " with the past participle. ( yo ) He comido . I have eaten. ( tú ) Has comido . You have eaten. ( él ) Ha comido .

Past Perfect:

Past Perfect The past perfect is formed by combining the auxiliary verb "had" with the past participle. T he past participle is formed by dropping the infinitive ending and adding either -ado or - ido . Remember, some past participles are irregular. The following examples all use the past participle for the verb " vivir .” (yo) Había vivido. I had lived . (tú) Habías vivido. You had lived . (él) Había vivido.

Future Tense:

Future Tense The future tense is used to tell what "will" happen, or what "shall" happen. Esta noche voy al cine. Tonight I'm going to the movies. Further in the future, use the future tense. El año que viene iré a España . Next year I'm going to Spain.

Conditional Tense:

Conditional Tense Frequently, the conditional is used to express probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture, and is usually translated as would, could, must have or probably. El alumno dijo que estudiaría una hora más . ¿ Qué hora sería ? Estaría en su casa. Estaríamos ocupados cuando llamaste .

Past Subjunctive:

Past Subjunctive To form the past perfect subjunctive, combine the imperfect subjunctive of the verb haber with the past participle Pablo dudó que yo hubiera ido a Perú. Mi madre no creyó que hubieras limpiado el cuarto