Medical Imaging

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2011.11.17

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A SEMINOR ON MEDICAL IMAGING k . prashanthi MCA third semester Roll no:1011152

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1. Introduction 2. Imaging technology . Radiography . Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) . Fiduciary markers . Nuclear Medicine . Breast thermography . Tomography . Ultrasound 3. Advantages 4. Conclusion contents

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INTRODUCTION Medical imaging is the technique and process used to create images of the human body for clinical purposes or medical science. It is in the widest sense, it is a part of biological imaging. Until 2010 5 billion medical imaging studies had been conducted world wide.

IMAGING TECHNOLOGIES:

IMAGING TECHNOLOGIES RADIOGRAPHY MRI FIDUCIARY MARKER NUCLEAR MEDICINE PHOTO ACOUSTIC IMAGING BREAST THERMOGRAPHY CT ULTRASOUND ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

RADIOGRAPHY:

RADIOGRAPHY Two forms of radiographic images are use in medical imaging. T hey are: 1. Projectional radiography(X-rays) 2. Fl uoroscopy

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X –rays are often used to determine the type and extent of a fracture as well as for detecting pathological changes in the lungs Fluoroscopy produces real-time images of internal structure of the body in a similar fashion to radiography

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a technique that uses strong magnets and radio waves that interact with the hydrogen atoms in your body (esp. in water). A computer is used to construct an image from the signal received from the atoms. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) Head MRI representation

Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) :

Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) MRI is used to image the structure and function of the brain, heart, soft tissue, and the inside of bones; to diagnose cancers, brain diseases, and problems with the circulatory system. But it is also extremely expensive and the availability of machines/technicians is limited.

Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) :

Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)

Fiduciary markers:

Fiduciary markers Fiduciary markers are used in wide range of medical imaging applications Images of the same subject produced with two different imaging systems may be correlated (called image registration) by placing a fiduciary markers in the area imaged by both system.

Nuclear medicine:

Nuclear medicine Nuclear medicine encompasses both diagnostic imaging and treatment of disease, and may also be referred to as molecular medicine or molecular imaging & therapeutics. Gamma cameras are used in e.g. scintigraphy, SPECT and PET to detect regions of biologic activity that may be associated with disease.

Gamma camera:

Gamma camera 1. Scintigraphy ("scint") is a form of diagnostic test where in radioisotope are taken internally 2. SPECT is a 3D tomographic technique that uses gamma camera data from many projections and can be reconstructed in different planes.

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Positron emission tomography (PET) uses coincidence detection to image functional processes. PET scans are a type of nuclear medicine is which a patient is given a radioisotope that emits positron radiation; the radioisotope is attached to a chemical absorbed by certain tissues or organs. It is used to detect cancers, heart disease, and some brain disorders PET Image

Photo acoustic imaging:

Photo acoustic imaging Photo acoustic imaging is a recently developed hybrid biomedical imaging modality based on the photo acoustic effect. Photo acoustic imaging can be used in vivo for tumor angiogenesis monitoring, blood oxygenation mapping, functional brain imaging , etc.

Breast thermography:

Breast thermography Digital infrared imaging thermography is based on the principle that metabolic activity and vascular circulation in both pre-cancerous tissue and the area surrounding a developing breast cancer is almost always higher than in normal breast tissue.

Tomography :

Tomography Tomography is the method of imaging a single plane, or slice, of an object resulting in a tomogram . There are several forms of tomography: 1. Linear tomography 2. Poly tomography 3. Zonography 4. Orthopan tomography 5. Computed tomography

Linear tomography:

Linear tomography This is the most basic form of tomography. The X-ray tube moved from point "A" to point "B" above the patient, while the cassette holder (or "bucky") moves simultaneously under the patient from point "B" to point "A”. Poly tomography This was a complex form of tomography. Philips Medical Systems produced one such device called the 'Polytome' This unit was still in use into the 1990s, as its resulting images for small or difficult physiology

Zonography :

Zonography Zonography This is a variant of linear tomography, where a limited arc of movement is used. It is still used in some centres for visualizing the kidney during an intravenous urogram (IVU). Orthopantomography Orthopantomography (OPT or OPG): The only common tomographic examination in use. This makes use of a complex movement to allow the radiographic examination of the mandible, as if it were a flat bone. It is often referred to as a "Panorex", but this is incorrect, as it is a trademark of a specific company.

Computed Tomography:

Computed Tomography Computed tomography (CT) scans, also called computer-axial tomography (CAT) scans, use x-rays to produce images at different angles through the body so that a 3D image can be constructed.

Ultrasound :

Ultrasound Ultrasound is high-frequency sound waves produced by a device called a transducer that are reflected back to the transducer by internal body structures.

Ultrasound :

Ultrasound Ultrasound is used to study soft tissues and organs, especially the heart (echocardiograms) and especially during pregnancy. Because the presence of gas can distort images, ultrasound is not often used for imaging the respiratory or digestive systems.

Echocardiography :

Echocardiography When ultrasound is used to image the heart it is referred to as an Echocardiogram . Echocardiography allows physicians to see detailed structures of the heart, including chamber size, heart function, the valves of the heart, as well as the pericardium (the sac around the heart). Echocardiography uses 2D, 3D, and Doppler imaging to create pictures of the heart and visualize the blood flowing through each of the four heart valves.

Advantages :

Advantages Safe & Effective Medical imaging system have a long life time Highly accurate High availability User friendly and simple Required in successful implementation of medical surgery

Conclusion :

Conclusion Finally I conclude that ,through our research and our interviews with academics, it is now extremely clear to us that the creation & evolution of medical imaging has been critical to modern medicine and medical research Without medical imaging , nothing would be known about the human body

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