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Arthropod borne viruses are classified into three main groups. Alpha virus ( formerly group A arboviruse) Flavivuirus (formerly group B arboviruse) Bunya virus

General characteristics : 

General characteristics Single stranded positive sense RNA Enveloped particles Heamagglutinate avian red cells Grows in cell cultures pathogenic for sucking mice.

Transmission and pathogenesis : 

Transmission and pathogenesis Transmitted via the bite of an insect vector, acquiring virus from a natural host and infecting humans by direct innoculation.

Pathogenesis : 

Pathogenesis Transmission via bite of an insect vector Primary vireamia (mild or asymptomatic presentation) Virus infects the cells of reticuloendothelial system and vasculo endothelial system causing mild symptomatic diseas fever, aches, chills Secondary vireamia ( antibody block) Leading to sever life threatening disease such as Encephalitis, Yellow fever, hepatitis. Haemorragic fever, DHF/DSS

Clinical features : 

Clinical features Encephalitis Associated with fever, sever headaches, nausea, vomiting, stiffness of neck, back and leg progressing to convulsions, drowsiness, deepening coma, and neurological signs such as paralysis and tremor.

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Fever – sometimes with rash - yellow fever - Dengue - Chikungunya - Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever. - riff valley fever Haemorragic feber

Laboratory diagnosis : 

Laboratory diagnosis Serology Heamagglutination inhibition for rising titers. ELISA for IgM detection Isolation Specimen: blood (sometimes throat swab, CSF, etc..) Inoculation: Sucking mice, cell cultures (where appropriate) mosquito larvae.

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