Module 9.9 Part A

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Curved Gram-negative rods and spirochetes:

Curved Gram-negative rods and spirochetes Module 9.9 Part A




Campylobacter Gram-negative fine curved rods (“seagulls) Microaerophilic (6% oxygen) requirement Growth in 2-4 days, depending on species Habitat is intestinal or genital tract, depending on species


Campylobacter C. jejuni All species Diarrhea C. coli Pigs Diarrhea humans C. upsaliensis Dogs Diarrhea dogs, people? C. fetus susp. venerealis Cattle Early embryonic death C. fetus subsp. fetus Sheep, cattle, humans Bacteremia (abortion)

Gerald, 8-week-old Retriever:

Gerald, 8-week-old Retriever Three days after arrival from Humane Society, developed moderate diarrhea, with mucus strands, spots of blood Somewhat uninterested in eating, slept more, uncomfortable Consulted vet on third day Had eaten a bit of raw chicken skin when arrived Treated symptomatically, recovered over next 2-3 days

Gerald has Campylobacter jejuni infection:

Gerald has Campylobacter jejuni infection

Campylobacter jejuni:

Campylobacter jejuni Major cause intestinal illness in humans, diarrhea in many animals Common in farm animals under conditions poor hygiene, close contact Rare under good hygiene More common in young animals Spread in fecally-contaminated water

Campylobacter jejuni: Carriage:

Campylobacter jejuni : Carriage Broiler chickens ++++ Pigs ( C. coli ) ++++ Cattle +++ Horses, dogs, cats _ Humans _ (Children in 3 rd world +++) Birds of all types +

Campylobacter jejuni: Types of disease:

Campylobacter jejuni: Types of disease Superficial erosive enteritis Ileitis-colitis; blood, mucus Self-limiting, one week, often benign; rarely severe Invasive, bacteremia, abortions

C. jejuni: Pathogenesis:

C. jejuni: Pathogenesis Colonizes mucus, invades epithelial cells, plasmid mediated Cytolethal distending toxin cdt genes causes cell cycle arrest LT-like adenylate cyclase-activating enterotoxin Astonishing adaptability of strains, “individual tailoring” of “virulome” to a host

Campylobacter jejuni:Diagnosis, treatment, control:

Campylobacter jejuni: Diagnosis, treatment, control Selective media (feces) Microaerophilic conditions Self-limiting diarrheal illness; macrolides, fluoroquinolones

Campylobacter jejuni: Zoonotic aspects:

Campylobacter jejuni: Zoonotic aspects Major cause bacterial diarrhea humans >Salmonellosis Certain serotypes Guillain-Barr é syndrome (demyelination PNS) “Cook gets it, not the guests” Chicken++++; raw milk ++; diarrheic animals ++; contaminated water +; other meat+; infected household

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Campylobacter 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 j m a j a o d j m m j s n j f a j a o d j m m j s n d f a j a o d j m m j s n d Infected flocks (%) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 First isolates, humans (15 PHLs) %positive flocks Humans 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Source: H.Wegener

Control C. jejuni:

Control C. jejuni Food and kitchen hygiene Cooking meat fully Fly control chicken houses? Slaughterhouse processing Immunize chickens? “Part of being a chicken?” More work needed

Lawsonia intracellularis:

Lawsonia intracellularis `

Poor doing foals:

Poor doing foals

Poor doing foals:

Poor doing foals A group of 5 weaned 6-8-month old foals weren’t growing well, despite feed supplementation and frequent deworming Thin; underweight for their age; poor, “staring”, coats; fecal staining around tail and hindquarters; some loose fecal pats in their pen No evidence toxic plants, mineral deficiency, worms Got better with housing, vitamin supplements, TLC over 2-3 months but never grew as well as expected

These foals had proliferative intestinal adenomatosis:

These foals had proliferative intestinal adenomatosis Lawsonia intracellularis

Lawsonia intracellularis:

Lawsonia intracellularis Unusual intracellular curved rod, only grown in cells Colonizes apical cytoplasm ileal epithelium Causes “proliferative intestinal adenomatosis” (PIA), transient proliferation immature glandular epithelium; reduced weight gain Occasionally proliferative haemorrhagic enteropathy (PHE), bleed out from ileum

Lawsonia intracellularis:

Lawsonia intracellularis Disease mainly weaner pigs Broad host range (hamsters, ferrets, dogs, foals, etc) Probably underdiagnosed

Lawsonia intracellularis:

Lawsonia intracellularis Diagnosis: pathological; PCR feces; ELISA Control: Live, attenuated vaccine, or antimicrobials, or SPF approaches

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