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THE BIOCHIPS (LIFE ON A CHIP) Rajesh Ghosh Ass. Professor, C.I.T, Uluberia, Chemical

What is a BIOCHIP ?:

What is a BIOCHIP ? Biochip is a broad term indicating the use of microchip technology in molecular biology Collection of miniaturized test sites (microarrays) Typically, a biochip's surface area is no larger than a fingernail. A biochip can perform thousands of biological reactions,

The Bio-Chip Technology :

The Bio-Chip Technology The current, in use, biochip implant is basically a small (micro) computer chip. Size of an uncooked grain of rice Injected under the skin using a syringe needle The biochip system is radio frequency identification (RFID) system,

Biochip Architecture :

Biochip Architecture Biochip implant system have 2 components Transponder It is the actual biochip implant. It is Passive device It has a very long life Requires no maintenance. It is inactive until the reader activates it by sending it a low-power electrical charge.

1. Transponder Parts:

1. Transponder Parts Computer Microchip Antenna Coil Tuning Capacitor Glass capsule

2. The Reader or Scanner:

The Reader consists of An "exciter" coil Receiving coil. Software and Components to decode the received code Takes place very fast, in milliseconds. Display the result in an LCD display. The reader can include a RS-232 port to attach a computer. 2. The Reader or Scanner

Working of a Biochip:

Working of a Biochip

Applications of Biochip:

Applications of Biochip Tracing of a person/animal, anywhere in the world is possible Can store and update financial, medical, demographic data. Replaces passports, cash, medical records Secured E- Commerce system


BIOCHIP AS GLUCOSE DETECTOR The chip will allow diabetics to easily monitor the level of the sugar glucose in their blood. A light-emitting diode (LED) in the biochip starts off the detection process Glucose is detected because the sugar reduces the amount of light that the fluorescent chemical re-emits. The more glucose there is the less light that is detected.


BIOCHIP AS OXYGEN SENSOR The oxygen sensor will be useful to monitor breathing in intensive care units, The oxygen-sensing chip sends light pulses out into the body. The light is absorbed to varying extents, depending on how much oxygen is being carried in the blood, The rushes of blood pumped by the heart are also detected, so the same chip is a pulse monitor.


BIOCHIP AS BLOOD PRESSURE SENSOR A continuous monitoring of BP is required in the aged people & Patients. A huge variety of hardware circuitry (sensors) is available in electronics to detect the flow of fluid are embedded into a biochip. It continuously monitor the blood flow rate & when the pressure is in its low or high extremes it can be immediately informed through the reader hence to take up remedial measures.


SALIVA ALERTS ABOUT A HEART ATTACK VIA NANO- BIO CHIP Compact Nano-bio-chip sensor devices that are biochemically-programmed to detect sets of these proteins in the saliva. The chip provides information on current risk of the patient. These tests dramatically improve the accuracy and speed of cardiac diagnosis.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Biochips:

Advantages and Disadvantages of Biochips ADVANTAGES To rescue the sick To locate downed children To identify person uniquely. In monitoring health condition of individuals Thousands of biochemical reactions can be performed simultaneously DISADVANTAGES They raise critical issues of personal privacy. They mark the end of human freedom and dignity. There is a danger of turning every man ,women, and Child into a controlled slave. "It is very dangerous because once kidnappers get to know about these chips, they will skin people to find them,"


CONCLUSION Biochips are fast, accurate, miniaturized, and can be expected to become economically advantageous attributes that make them analogous to a computer chip. One expects to see an accelerated trend of ultra-miniaturization Since the potential applications are vast, both for research and for clinical use, the potential markets for biochips will be huge.

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