Motivation-Content Theories of Motivation

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Motivation-Content Theories of Motivation


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Motivation - Content Theories of Motivation:

Motivation - Content Theories of Motivation Dr. G C Mohanta, BE, MSc(Engg), MBA, PhD(Mgt) Professor Al-Qurmoshi Institute of Business Management Hyderabad


Motivation Motivation is t he process that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. Intensity – how hard a person tries Direction – effort that is channeled toward and consistent with organizational goals Persistence – how long a person can maintain effort

Motivation (Contd.):

Motivation (Contd.) Motivation is the process that account for an individual’s willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals , conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need . Effort: a measure of intensity or drive. Direction: toward organizational goals Need: personalized reason to exert effort

Motivation (Contd.):

Motivation (Contd.) Motivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goals. Need An internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive. An unsatisfied need creates tension which is reduced by an individual’s efforts to satisfy the need.

Types of Motivation Theory:

Types of Motivation Theory Content theories of motivation Human needs and how people with different needs may respond to different work situations. Process theories of motivation How people give meaning to rewards and make decisions on various work-related behaviors.

Content Theories of Motivation:

Content Theories of Motivation The following are some of the Content Theories of Motivation: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Alderfer’s ERG Theory Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory McCleland’s Needs Theory

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory:

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory Needs are categorized as five levels of lower-to higher-order needs. Individuals must satisfy lower-order needs before they can satisfy higher order needs. Satisfied needs will no longer motivate. Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that person is on the hierarchy. Hierarchy of needs Lower-order (external): physiological, safety Higher-order (internal): social, esteem, self-actualization

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self- actualization Esteem Belongingness Security Physiology Food Achievement Status Friendship Stability Job Friends Pension Base NEEDS General Examples Organizational Examples job Challenging title at work plan salary

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Cont.):

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Cont.) Physiological needs: basic requirements of the human body - food, cloth, shelter, water, sleep, etc. Safety needs: desires of a person to be protected from physical and economic harm Belongingness and love needs (social): desire to give and receive affection; be in the company of others Esteem needs: self-confidence and sense of self-worth Esteem from others: valuation of self from other people Self-esteem: feeling of self-confidence and self-respect Self-actualization needs: desire for self-fulfillment

Alderfer’s ERG Theory :

Alderfer’s ERG Theory Existence (E) needs These include an individual’s physiological and safety needs. Relatedness (R) needs Social needs fall under this class of need. Growth (G) needs Intrinsic component of needs, such as, achievement, esteem and self actualization needs fall under this category of need.


Alderfer’s Three Needs

Herzberg’s Motivation - Hygiene Theory:

Herzberg’s Motivation - Hygiene Theory Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created by different factors. Hygiene factors: Extrinsic (environmental) factors create job dissatisfaction. Motivators: Intrinsic (psychological) factors create job satisfaction. This theory attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance. The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather no satisfaction.

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory:

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory

McClelland’s Three Needs Theory:

McClelland’s Three Needs Theory Three-Needs Theory There are three major acquired needs that are major motivators in work: Need for achievement (nAch) The drive to excel and succeed Need for power (nPow) The need to influence the behavior of others Need for affiliation (nAff) The desire for interpersonal relationships

McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory :

McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory Strong need for achievement people Take responsibility for results of behavior Willing to take calculated risks Set moderate achievement goals Prefer to set performance standards for themselves Prefer non-routine tasks to routine assignments Welcome feedback about how well they are doing

McClelland’s Power Motivation Theory:

McClelland’s Power Motivation Theory Strong Need for Power people Focuses on "controlling the means of influencing the behavior of another person” Having strong effects on other people Means of influence: anything available to the person to control the behavior of another Actively searches for means of influence

McClelland’s Affiliation Motivation Theory:

McClelland’s Affiliation Motivation Theory Strong Need for Affiliation people Focuses on "establishing, maintaining, and restoring positive affective relations with others" Want close, warm interpersonal relationships Seek the approval of others, especially those about whom they care Like other people, want other people to like them, and want to be in the company of others

McClelland’s Achievement & Power Motivation Theory :

McClelland’s Achievement & Power Motivation Theory Managers and executives usually have a stronger Need for Achievement than people in other occupations Strong Need for Power person Draws attention Risk taking Present oriented Assesses situations for change potential Strong Need for Achievement person Task centered Future oriented Performs to internal standard of excellence

McClelland’s Achievement & Power Motivation Theory (Contd.):

McClelland’s Achievement & Power Motivation Theory (Contd.) Need for Achievement and Need for Power: Both types of people important for successful organizations Strong Need for Achievement managers keep an organization going Strong Need for Power people bring dramatic change and innovation