Power and Politics

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Power and Politics

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Power, Politics, Sources of Individual, Functional & Divisional Power and Organisational Politics:

Power, Politics, Sources of Individual , Functional & Divisional Power and Organisational Politics Dr. G C Mohanta, BE, MSc( Engg ), MBA, PhD(Mgt) Professor Al- Qurmoshi Institute of Business Management Hyderabad

Power :

Power Power is the potential ability to influence behaviour , to change the course of events, to overcome resistance, and to get the people to do the things they would not otherwise do. The greater A’s dependency on B, the greater B’s power over A. Dependency arises as some body has control over the resources and due to: Importance of the resource to the organization Scarcity of the resource Non-substitutability of the resource

Sources of Individual Power:

Sources of Individual Power Two main sources of individual power Position power —based on one’s formal position in an organization Personal power —derived from a person’s individual qualities or characteristics Position Power Legitimate power Reward power Coercive power Information power Personal Power Rational persuasion Referent power Expert power Charismatic power Individual Power

Legitimate Power:

Legitimate Power Legitimate Power —refers to the ability to influence others because of the position one holds in the organization. It is also called authority, or the right to command. Characteristics of organizational authority are: i . It is invested in a person's position. ii. It is accepted by subordinates. iii. Authority is used vertically, flows from the top down.

Coercive & Reward Power:

Coercive & Reward Power Coercive Power —the power to punish or withhold punishment. It is based on fear. It can come from legitimate power. It can come informally, e.g., fear of rejection by co-workers. Reward Power — The power to give pay raises, promotion, praise, interesting projects, and other rewards to subordinates.

Information, Expert & Rational Persuasion Power:

Information, Expert & Rational Persuasion Power Information Power — The power that stems from access to and control over information. Expert Power —based on an individual's special and valued expertise. The lower the substitutability of the expertise, the greater the expert's power. Rational Persuasion - Ability to mount logical arguments and factual evidence to convince others an idea as acceptable.

Referent & Charismatic Power:

Referent & Charismatic Power Referent Power - Informal power that stems from being liked, admired, and respected. Charismatic Power - An intense form of referent power that stems from an individual’s personality or physical or other abilities, which induce others to believe in and follow that person. Vision Inspiring trust Excellent communicators

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Sources of Functional and Divisional Power

Power Tactics:

Power Tactics Ways in which Individual translates power bases into specific actions Seven tactical dimensions or strategies Reason Assertiveness Friendliness Coalition Bargaining Higher authority Sanctions

Power Tactics: From Most to Least Popular:

Power Tactics: From Most to Least Popular

Strategies for Attaining Power :

Strategies for Attaining Power Maintaining alliance with powerful people Embrace or Demolish Divide and Rule Manipulate Information Create good impressions Collect and use IOUs (I owe you) Go slow and easy Wait for crises Reservations against participation

Power Sharing:

Power Sharing Decentralization of power - shared decision making. De-concentration – handing over some admin authority to lower levels Delegation - Transferring responsibility for specifically defined functions Devolution - creating and strengthening sub-units Privatization – passing responsibility to private organisations .

Organizational Politics:

Organizational Politics Politics are the activities that are not required as part of one’s formal role in the Organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. Politics = Power in Action Legitimate and illegitimate political behaviors are common in organizations. Factors contributing to Political Behavior Individual factors (e.g., personality traits, needs) Organizational factors (e.g., when organizational resources decline, resources change, low trust exists, high performance pressures, and the opportunity of promotion exists)

Good Power and Politics:

Good Power and Politics Processes Empowerment, open conflict, positive-sum games, creative turbulence, acceptance of rules of the game, consensus on core values, shifting coalitions and interests Outcomes Flexibility, adaptiveness , overcome dependency and inertia, root out entrenched interests, abolish unproductive routines, increased efficacy, efficiency

Bad Power and Politics:

Bad Power and Politics From the organization’s perspective Processes Back-stabbing, rumor-mongoring , vengeance-seeking, sabotage, corruption, secrecy, hoarding, zero-sum games Outcomes Goal subversion/sub-optimization; factionalism; stalemate & inertia, high cost in time & resources, loss of transparency and accountability From the participant’s perspective Uncertainty, anxiety, frustration, stress, isolation, inability to focus on tasks, failure

How Do People Respond to Organizational Politics?:

How Do People Respond to Organizational Politics? Decreased job satisfaction, increased anxiety, increased turnover, and reduced performance Defensive Actions: Reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action, blame, or change Impression Management The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them.

Defensive Behaviour:

Defensive Behaviour Avoiding Action Over conforming Buck Passing Playing Dumb Stretching Stalling Avoiding Blame Bluffing Playing Safe Justifying Scape-goating Misrepresenting Avoiding Change Prevention Self-protection

Impression Management :

Impression Management Conformity : Agreeing to gain approval Excuses : To minimize severity Apologies : Admitting responsibility and attempt to gain pardon Self-Promotion : Highlighting one’s achievements and positives Flattery : Complimenting others Favours : Doing something nice to gain approval Association : Reflected glory

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